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Connective Tissue HKIN 473. Group Members: Amy Chu Jesse Godwin Hale Loofbourrow Scott Apperley Greg Kirk Ken Anderson. Overview. Introduction to Connective Tissue Tendons Ligaments Cartilage Conclusion. Introduction.

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connective tissue hkin 473

Connective TissueHKIN 473

Group Members:

Amy Chu

Jesse Godwin

Hale Loofbourrow

Scott Apperley

Greg Kirk

Ken Anderson

  • Introduction to Connective Tissue
  • Tendons
  • Ligaments
  • Cartilage
  • Conclusion
  • Connective tissues are situated around the body and play numerous roles
  • Components common to connective tissue
    • Collagen Fibers
      • Most abundant (parallel in arrangement)
      • Stronger than steel
    • Reticular Fibers
      • Criss-cross
    • Elastic Fibers
      • Slightly elastic
tendons function
Tendons: Function
  • Primary Function
    • Attach muscle to bone thereby transmitting tensile loads from muscle to bone to produce movement.
  • Secondary Function
    • Allows the muscle belly to be at an optimal distance from the joint upon which it acts.
tendons anatomy
Tendons: Anatomy
  • 86% collagen fibers making them very strong
  • The connective tissue that runs the length of the muscle joins together into a bundle of connective tissue, forming the tendon
tendons physiology
Tendons: Physiology
  • Biomechanical Properties of Tendons
    • 4 regions of the graph
      • (1) concave or “toe,” region. Results form change in the wavy pattern of relaxed collagen fibers which become straighter as the load progresses. Little force is required to elongate tissue initially.
      • (2) linear region. The fibers straighten out and stiffness of the specimen increases rapidly.
tendons physiology con t
(3) End of linear relation. When the linear region is surpassed major failure of the fiber bundles occurs. Small force reductions in the curve represent early sequential failure of a few greatly stretched fiber bundles.

(4) Maximum load, expressing the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue. Complete failure of the tissue to resist load.

Tendons: Physiology (con’t)
tendons injury
Tendons: Injury
  • The amount of force that the muscle, which the tendon is attached to, can generate and the cross sectional area of the tendon are the major factors in predicting injury.
  • When subjected to loading that exceeds the physiological range, micro-failure takes place even before the yield point is reached.
  • If muscle contracted, the stress on the tendon can be greatly increased with a rapid eccentric contraction.
tendons viscoelastic behavior
Tendons: Viscoelastic Behavior
  • Display rate-dependent behavior under loading (mechanical properties change with different rates of loading).
  • The linear portion of the stress strain curve becomes steeper with increased loading rates. (ie, there is a higher level of stiffness at higher strain rates)
  • With these higher strain rates, tendons can store more energy, require more force to rupture, and undergo greater elongation.
tendons adaptations
Tendons: Adaptations
  • Factors that affect the mechanical properties of tendon include:

a) Maturation and Aging

      • directly related to quality and number of collagen cross links

b) Pregnancy

      • tendons and pubic symphysis

c) Mobilization and Immobilization

d) NSAID’s

      • short term administration after injury thought to increase rate of biomechanical restoration of tissue.
ligaments function
Ligaments: Function
  • Tough, white, fibrous, slightly elastic tissues
  • Connect bone to bone
  • Supporting and strengthening joints
  • Restrict range of motion to prevent excessive movement that could cause dislocation and spraining
ligaments anatomy
Ligaments: Anatomy
  • Ligaments and tendons are regular dense collagen bundles
    • The collagen fibers are closely packed and arranged in parallel to give higher tensile strength
    • Ligaments are strongest with forces parallel to the fiber arrangement (along axis of the fibers)
  • Highly avascular
    • Heal slowly
  • Very similar to tendons
ligaments sprains
Ligaments: Sprains
  • Can be caused by the severe stretching or tearing or a ligament
  • Often caused by twisting or wrenching movement
  • Symptoms: pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising
  • Treatment: immediate cold compress and elevation, long term bandaging and/or splinting
    • In rare cases, surgery my be a useful alternative
  • Full recovery may take up to 5 weeks
cartilage anatomy
Cartilage: Anatomy
  • Dense network of collagen and elastin fibers
  • Fibers are embedded in a ground substance of chrondroitin sulfate
  • Collagen provides strength
  • Elastin provides elasticity
  • Cartilage is an avascular tissue
cartilage types
Cartilage: Types
  • Three primary types based on proportion of chondrocytes, elastin fibers and collagen fibers

1. Fibrocartilage

2. Elastic Cartilage

3. Hyaline Cartilage

1 firbrocartilage
1. Firbrocartilage
  • Large proportion of collagen fibers
  • Provides strength and support
  • Found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci of the knee

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

2 elastic cartilage
2. Elastic Cartilage
  • Chondrocytes reside in a “threadlike network” provided by elastic fibers
  • Provides strength and elasticity while maintaining shape
  • Found in the epiglottis and external ear

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

3 hyaline cartilage
3. Hyaline Cartilage
  • Most abundant cartilage composed of fine collagen fibres with many chondrocytes
  • Provides flexibility and support
  • Found in the nose, larynx, bronchi, trachea and on the anterior ends of ribs

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

cartilage endochondral ossification
Cartilage: Endochondral Ossification
  • A further function of Hyaline Cartilage is in the formation of long bones
  • Starting in the fetus, cartilage calcifies until full bone growth has been achieved, typically at the age of 25

Tortora & Grabowski, 2000

articular cartilage
Articular Cartilage
  • Hyaline or Fibrocartilage found in joints on the articulating surfaces of bones
  • Provides a smooth, slippery surface that reduces friction and absorbs shock in joints

Tortora & Grabowski, 2000

cartilage osteoarthritis
Cartilage: Osteoarthritis
  • Painful condition in which the articular cartilage between bones degenerates
  • 11% of people older than 64 years old experience symptoms of osteoarthritis
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been found to relieve some pain symptoms
cartilage knee menisci
Cartilage: Knee Menisci
  • The medial and lateral menisci are wedge-like cushions of fibrocartilage found in the knee joint between the tibia and femur
  • Knee menisci provide stability, support in carrying weight and allow movement in many directions

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2001

cartilage meniscal tears
Cartilage: Meniscal Tears
  • Damage to the menisci can occur in decelerating, twisting, cutting or pivoting
  • Meniscal tears may cause loss of range of motion, pain, stiffness and knee locking
  • Meniscal injuries are hard to heal because of the absence of blood supply
  • Meniscal injuries may require surgical treatment