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Overall Course Overview:. April 7: QA Systems, EPA definitions, PQAOs and common sense – Mike Papp April 14: Routine Quality Control and Data Management (1-pt QC, flow rate, and instrument stability checks) – Travis Maki

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overall course overview
Overall Course Overview:
  • April 7: QA Systems, EPA definitions, PQAOs and common sense – Mike Papp
  • April 14: Routine Quality Control and Data Management (1-pt QC, flow rate, and instrument stability checks) – Travis Maki
  • April 21: Audits Overview (NPAP, PEP, Annual PE, Flow Rate Audits) – Jeremy Howe
  • April 28: Calculating Bias and Precision and AQS reports – Bill Frietsche
  • May 5: 40 CFR 58 App. A- Gaseous Pollutants – Glenn Gehring
  • May 12: 40 CFR 58 App. A- Ozone – Chris Ellis, Southern Ute
  • May 19: 40 CFR 58 App. A- PM filter and continuous methods –Brandy Toft, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
pm monitoring

PM Monitoring

Guest Speaker:

Brandy Toft

Leech Lake Ojibwe

overview of pm session
Overview of PM session:
  • Overview of FRM/FEM/ARM status, requirements, and reporting
  • QC (routine checks, audits, and method-specific QC) for:
    • Filter and Continuous PM2.5
    • Filter and Continuous PM10
  • Minivols
  • General PM QC issues

FRM=Federal Reference MethodFEM = Federal Equivalent Methodnew list available as of 2/1: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/criteria/reference-equivalent-methods-list.pdf

  • Draft SOPs for approved FEMs written by EPA in our course downloads folder at: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/EPA%20Draft%20Continuous%20PM%20SOPs/
    • Thermo 8500C FDMS – Recently delivered from STI - looking for Reviewers; please contact Tim Hanley at: hanley.tim@epa.gov
for naaqs
  • If comparing to standard, MUST use FRM or FEM; see 40 CFR 50.7
    • Also look at Appendix C to 40 CFR Part 58 – Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology
  • You may have purposes other than comparing to NAAQS, and you may want different types of instruments to suit your goals
  • Can use an FRM (class 1, filter-based), FEM class II (filter-based, like dichots), or FEM class III (continuous), or ARM (someday)
50 7 naaqs for particulate matter 2 5 microns and smaller
§50.7   NAAQS for Particulate Matter 2.5 Microns and Smaller
  • 6 PM2.5 continuous methods have been approved as FEMs
  • PM2.5 Continuous Monitoring http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/contmont.html
  • If PM2.5 continuous FEMs meet Part 53 criteria used to approve the instrument by comparing to collocated FRMs, EPA supports use of the continuous FEM as a Primary monitor (see spreadsheet for the calcs at above website, and ppt explanation in session 7 folder at http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/
approved pm 2 5 class iii fems
Approved PM2.5 Class III FEMs
  • Met One BAM-1020 Monitor – EQPM-0308-170
  • Thermo Scientific Model 5014i or FH62C14-DHS – EQPM-0609-183
  • Thermo Scientific Model 5030 SHARP – EQPM-0609-184
  • Thermo Scientific Series 8500C FDMS – EQPM-0609-181
  • Thermo Scientific 1405-DF FDMS – EQPM-0609-182
  • GRIMM Model EDM 180 PM2.5 Monitor – EQPM-0311-195
ARMs ?
  • ARM = Approved Regional Method
    • No ARMs yet
    • Process of establishing an ARM is the same as an FEM, must collocate FRM and produce 90 + sample pairs per year with 20 ea season
    • Use same spreadsheet to evaluate data http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/
    • Regional office must approve (natch)
3 scenarios for pm2 5 continuous for naaqs
3 scenarios for PM2.5 continuous for NAAQS:
  • An approved FEM can be designated as primary
  • The FEM can be collocated with FRM, the FRM being primary
  • An ARM FEM can be approved (takes at least a year of operation to gather enough data, plus time for approval)
  • Approved primary FEM or ARM would then report to AQS as 88101, POC 3
how to report pm2 5 frm fem data
How to report PM2.5 FRM/FEM data?
  • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/contrept.pdf
  • And http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/femarmslam.pdf
  • Remember all QA requirements apply:
    • Collocation, FR checks, PEP audits in Appendix A: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%201-QA%20systems,%20PQAOs/
    • Siting (Appendix E) http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/
pm 2 5 qc overview
PM 2.5 QC Overview:
  • See e-cfr, or: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%201-QA%20systems,%20PQAOs/
who can do these and with what
Who can do these, and with what?

General info on filter methods in guidance doc 2.12: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/m212covd.pdf

pm2 5
  • Same CFR requirements for filter (FRM-17 methods) and dichot (2 methods) and continuous (6 methods), although there are separate validation templates for filter, continuous & dichot (http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%201-QA%20systems,%20PQAOs/)
  • collocation:
    • if <= 3 sites, at least 1 FRM collocated with one FEM
    • 1/12 days for SLAMS, 1/6 for PSD
  • PEP five times each year if fewer than 5 sites
  • FR checks every 4 weeks(RP) with own stnd
  • FR audit every 6 months(RA) with outside stnd
hints and tips for pm2 5
Hints and tips for PM2.5:
  • Lab
    • Never ship on a Friday
    • Find what works for you and work with the lab
      • Metal vs. plastic filter covers
    • Send AQS raw data monthly
    • Keep up communications
  • Have a good aqs contractor
    • Get to know and trust
    • Double check their work
  • Train in good back-up people
hints and tips for pm2 51
Hints and tips for PM2.5:
  • Backpack ready
    • PM field log book and Field log book
    • SOPs and quick look maintenance schedule
    • Calendar with 1:6 schedule
    • Delta Cal instructional book
    • O-ring kits and grease
    • WINS impactor filters/oil
    • Flow disks
    • Cleaning supplies
    • Writing utensils for all weather
    • Keys
hints and tips for pm2 52
Hints and tips for PM2.5:
  • EPA
    • Withdraw of funds – fought to keep monitors
    • Don’t take no for an answer – present case
      • No other PM monitoring in area – can’t rely on other data
    • Don’t rely on for audits, have a back up plan
  • Do what type of monitoring is best for the Tribe
    • Look at worst case scenario, legal aspect
50 7 naaqs for particulate matter 10 microns and smaller
§50.7   NAAQS for Particulate Matter 10 Microns and Smaller
  • FRM are all filter-based methods (40 CFR 50 App. J)
  • FEM includes continuous methods (40 CFR 53)
  • BOTH can be compared to the NAAQS for PM10 (40 CFR 50.7)
pm 10 frm 2 methods
PM10 FRM: 2 Methods
  • Hi-vol (1130 lpm) method (used for TSP) with PM10 inlet that directs only PM10 to filter; guidance in EPA Handbook 2.11
  • Lo-vol sampling at 16.7 L/m; see EPA Handbook 2.10; can be either:
    • Dichot method which split into PM2.5 and PM10; both filters are weighed
    • Lo-vol sampler (R&P, Andersen, and BGI all approved as FRM PM10)

Both handbooks at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/qapollutant.html

pm 10 fem 2 methods
PM10 FEM: 2 Methods
  • TEOMs
  • BAMs
  • See TAMS Center’s course material specific to these methods:
    • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/BAM%20checklists/
    • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/BAM_Resources/
    • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/TEOM%20docs/
    • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/TEOM_Resources/
pm 10 manual qc
PM 10 manual QC:

(hi-vol or lo-vol doesn’t matter to the 15%)

pm 10 automated qc
PM 10 automated QC:

Plus whatever your instrument manuals call for; see example QC sheets in the session 7 folder, and the EPA example SOPs have QC sheets appended: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/

  • As for all PM, it all hinges on flow rate and careful filter handling
  • http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/MiniVol_Resources/
general pm qc issues
General PM QC issues:
  • Laboratories!
    • The TAMS Center laboratory provides exemplary reports; examples available for you to urge your lab to copy: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/session%207-PM/
    • Also ask for quarterly QC reports
    • TAMS gravimetric services: http://www4.nau.edu/tams/services/filterlab.asp
  • Flow rate standards must be verified annually, some guidance in Redbook http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/EPA%20guidance%20and%20other%20reference%20material/
  • Data management (filters require chain of custody; see example COC forms for PEP program in session 7 folder)
more pm issues
More PM issues:
  • You may be using a non-FRM/FEM, so you can report to AQS using the non-regulatory guidance: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/memos/Non%20Regulatory%20Monitor%20Type%20Guidance.pdf
  • Flow rate and pressure calcs are made easier with free program: http://www.unitconverterpro.com/
  • REPORT NEGATIVE VALUES: see your MDL in the table AQS_SplgMethodsFromToolbox.xls in session 7 folder:
    • TEOMs MDL ranges from -10 to -50
    • BAMS MDL ranges from -10 to 4 mg/m3
qc forms specific to your instrument are available in epa draft sops in course downloads folder
QC forms specific to your instrument are available in EPA draft SOPs in course downloads folder:
pm monitoring conclusions
PM Monitoring Conclusions:
  • It ALL hangs on flow rate
  • PM2.5 PEP auditing necessary for NAAQS data
  • Your instrument may be able to do “better” than validation criteria, see your spec sheets
  • Course website: http://itep68.itep.nau.edu/itep_downloads/QA101_Resources/
  • Our emails:
    • Brandy Toft air@lldrm.org
    • Melinda.ronca-battista@nau.edu
    • Christopher.lee@nau.edu