antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition. PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition.

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on

Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition. Daniel Calarese … Ian A. Wilson (16 authors from Scripps, Oxford, FSU, U Ag Vienna) Science June 27, 2003 (300:2065). Burton, Wilson, and Calarese. What is “domain exchange”?. Paratope.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition.' - silas


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition

Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition.

Daniel Calarese … Ian A. Wilson

(16 authors from

Scripps, Oxford, FSU, U Ag Vienna)

Science June 27, 2003 (300:2065)

Burton, Wilson, and Calarese

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

what is domain exchange
What is “domain exchange”?

Paratope

  • 2 Ordinary Fabs
  • VH domains exchanged

Forming a Fab dimer with

two ordinary VH –VL paratopes

+ two new VH –VH paratopes

Variable Domains

Constant Domains

H

L

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

toober models
Two

Conven-

tional

Fab’s

2G12

Fab’s

“Toober” models

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

what is 2g12
What is 2G12?
  • Human monoclonal IgG1 from patient B cells.
  • Neutralizes unusually broad range of known HIV strains (25-50%).
  • Binds to dense cluster of carbohydrate epitopes on the “silent” face of gp120.
  • Unusually high affinity among anti-carbohydrate antibodies.
  • Antibodies to the 2G12 epitope are unusual in sera from HIV+ patients (by competition).

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

the silent face of gp120
The “Silent” face of gp120
  • Is an unusual epitope among HIV+ patient antibodies.
  • Potential protein epitopes beneath the carbohydrate are shielded.
  • Carbohydrate is made by host (not virus enzymes) hence may be “self” (though the dense cluster of oligomannose residues has not been described on mammalian glycoproteins).
  • Has multiple glycoforms diluting any one epitope.
  • Antibodies to carbohydrate epitopes usually have low affinities (Kd micromolar; but 2G12 Kd is nanomolar).

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

why is the structure of 2g12 important
Why is the structure of 2G12 important?
  • Paradigm shift: functional framework changes via somatic hypermutation.
  • Paradigm shift: VH-VH paratope.
  • Exception to the rule that Fab:antigen interactions are monovalent.
  • Domain-swapped dimer is unprecedented among >250 published Fab structures.
  • Explains high affinity and ability to bind closely-spaced epitopes.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

protein crystallography
Protein Crystallography
  • Accounts for 85% of published structures.
  • Has an overall success rate of ~3%.
  • <1% of the human proteome has crystallographically known structure.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

methods
Methods
  • Express full IgG1 in CHO cells.
  • Papain  Fab (completeness confirmed by SDS-PAGE).
  • Purif. Prot. A/G columns, 30 mg/ml.
  • 1 μl (ligand 5 to 1 molar ratio) + 1 μl cryst. sol’n (ammonium/sulfate/phosphate, PEG, imidazole malate, pH 6/7), sitting drop crystallization.
  • Diffract Stanford Synchrotron cryopres. in Liq. N2
  • Phase solved by molecular replacement with best-fitting existing Fab structure (1fvd).
  • Model of known amino acid sequence built into electron density map and refined (with restraints) for best fit.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

crystallographic results
Crystallographic Results

* ~6,600 atoms

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

framework somatic mutations facilitate domain exchange
Framework Somatic MutationsFacilitate Domain Exchange
  • Weaken VH-VL
  • Alter H Chain Elbow

Conserved ball and socket is not mutated but is dislocated.

Mutated residues add stabilization.

  • Strengthen VH-VH’

See details in Protein Explorer

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

is this bizarre fab dimer for real it is not observed in 250 published fab crystal structures
Is this bizarre Fab dimer for real?It is not observed in >250 published Fab crystal structures.

Fab: about 80% dimer + 20% monomer in solution by

  • Sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation.
  • Gel filtration.

Intact IgG1 has compact conformation by

  • Velocity sedimentation coefficient.
  • Negative staining electron microscopy.
    • With and without gp140 ligand

Apparently the dimer is for real.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

slide12
Fig. 2c: Electron microscopy of intact 2G12 IgG1 shows a compact form (neither Y nor T) with or without bound antigen.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

mutants of 2g12 reducing gp120 binding affinity 100 1 000 fold
Mutants of 2G12reducing gp120 binding affinity ~100-1,000 fold
  • Primary combining site (VH-VL) 5/11
  • Secondary binding site (VH-VH) 4/5
  • Domain exchange-facilitating residues
    • VH-VH 4/4
    • Elbow 3/3

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

function of hiv oligomannose
Function of HIV oligomannose
  • DC-SIGN is a human lectin.

(Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3 Grabbing Nonintegrin)

  • Facilitates infection of CD4+ cells by binding HIV carbohydrate.
  • Speculation: HIV-1 evolved oligomannose to utilize DC-SIGN.
  • 2G12 exploits this “Achilles heel” of HIV-1.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

conclusions
Conclusions
  • 2G12 forms a novel domain-swapped dimer (in 3 crystals and in solution) in both Fab and intact IgG1.
  • A novel form of paratope occurs at the VH-VH’ interface.
  • The novel conformation is enabled by somatic mutations to framework residues.
  • The resulting 4-paratope array accommodates closely spaced carbohydrate epitopes (35 Å, vs. 50-140 Å for Y or T) achieving nanomolar avidity. An epitope on gp120 is predicted.
  • Vaccines mimicking oligomannose cluster may elicit protective Abs.
  • 2IG2: scaffold for designing Abs to other epitope clusters?

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

alternative antibody lifestyles
Alternative Antibody Lifestyles

Naturally Occurring

  • Camel H chain dimer (no L; “VHH”)
      • (Muyldermans et al., TiBS 26:230, 2001)
  • VH domain-swapped dimer
      • (Calarese et al., Science 300:2065, 2003)

Engineered

  • Fv (VH-VL with no C domains)
  • Fv domain-swapped “triabody” (trimer ring)
      • (Pei et al. PNAS 95:9637, 1997)

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

some high impact crystal structures
Some High-Impact Crystal Structures
  • Myoglobin (1960): first example of protein structure.
  • Lysozyme (1965): first enzyme.
  • Fab (1973): first immunoglobulin fold (shared in unrelated proteins, first SOD).
  • tRNA (1975): first RNA structure.
  • MHC (1987): explained restriction of T cell recognition.
  • Ribosome (2000): peptidyl transferase is a ribozyme.
  • 2G12 (2003): unprecedented dimeric paratope with framework somatic mutations.

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

first crystal structures without big surprises less impact
First crystal structureswithout big surprises (less impact)
  • DNA double helix (1973-80): predicted correctly in 1953.
  • T cell antigen receptor (, 1996).
  • TCR  (2001)
  • CD1 with phospholipid ligand (2002)

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

fig 3d
Fig. 3D

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

slide20

Fig. 3B

slide by eric martz, sept 2003

fig 6 model of 2g12 gp120
Fig. 6: Model of 2G12 + gp120

slide by eric martz, sept 2003