Introduction to Curriculum Child Development Theorist & Theories. ~Jeanette Fanconi
Child Development 107 Instructor: Jeanette Fanconi, M.A. Cell phone: 678-6889 Email: email@example.com http://fcs.sites.mjc.edu/fanconij.html Book needed: Educating Young Children 3rd edition.
What will happen tonight? Roll Icebreaker Activities Read and go through the syllabus Introduction of the Instructor Books & Songs Lecture In class activities
Student Introductions • Please tell your group name, program, position or future position & what you think “today’s preschool system” should look like?
Your thoughts on what today’s preschool system should “look like”, would be an example of your philosophy.
What is a philosophy? • A philosophy is a comprehensive system of ideas about human nature and the nature of the reality we live in. It is a guide for living, because the issues it addresses are basic and pervasive, determining the course we take in life and how we treat other people.
So what does that mean? • It is what we believe in. It is what is important to us. It is our commitment to our students, parents, and follow colleagues.
What are policies? • A policy is defined as a specific statement of principles or guiding actions that imply clear commitment by your facility; a statement of values or intent that provides a basis for consistent decision making and resource allocation; or a definite method or course of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
There are several reasons that policies are established, including: • To respond to legal or regulatory guidelines • To resolve a conflict or problem • To recognize the legitimate interest of all parties
What is Curriculum • In it’s broadest sense a curriculum may refer to all “courses” offered at school. • It is your philosophy • It is everything that you do with your students, from the moment they walk into your classroom till the moment they leave. • It is what you put into your environment.
Child Development • Why should you, as an early childhood professional, know about child development theories, and how are they relevant to your practice?
Maslow: Basic Needs and Learning • Hierarchy of needs: • Physical • Safety needs • Love/Belonging • Esteem • Self Actualization
Physical Needs: Basic Needs Physical needs-(physiological) • Air, food, water, “bodily comforts”
Safety Needs • Safety needs • Stability, Structure, and order. • Security from danger: physical, emotional, psychological • Freedom to explore for young children • May need adaptations for children with disabilities
Love/Belonging • Love/Belonging • Accepted, respected, loved, connected, belonging • Children's behavior is often the result of their basic needs not being met.
Self-esteem • Esteem • Pride in oneself. • Self-respect and respect from others • Emerges from daily experiences, predominantly successful and positive, sense of self grows
Self Actualization • Self-Actualization: one’s full potential • The Ah Ha! Moment. • What you were born to do! • Your calling.
Erik Erikson: The Emotions and Learning • Eight Stages of Man • Each stage builds on the success of earlier stages • Trust vs mistrust (infancy) • Built through trusting your physical needs will be met • Autonomy vs shame and doubt (toddler, 1 – 3 years) • I can do it, I can do it myself! • Toilet training • Initiative vs guilt (3 – 5 years) • Make a plan, do it!
Trust vs Mistrust • World is safe and reliable • World will respond to your needs • Consistent and loving care teaches the infant to trust • When infant cries and gets no response, not fed when hungry, not comforted when hurt teaches the infant to mistrust • Virtue: Hope • Creative Curriculum shows teachers how to: • Know and develop a positive relationship with each child • Follow a consistent schedule • Carry through on announced plans and promises
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt(1 – 3 yrs) • Independence, acting willingly and by free choice • Sense of one’s power that builds on the foundation of trust • Autonomy develops when adults allow toddlers to do things on their own • When adults make excessive demands or criticize the child’s efforts, they develop shame and doubt • Virtue: Will!
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt**continued…. • HighScope Curriculum shows teachers how to: • Help children become autonomous by providing structure to regulate their own behavior • Honor children’s efforts to become independent and foster competence • Set up an environment where children can find and return materials on their own • Provide appropriate play materials that support and challenge children’s abilities • Help children express their feelings in constructive ways • Provide appropriate real-world responsibilities and jobs • Encourage children to see tasks through to completion
Initiative vs Guilt3 – 5 years • Primary achievement of the preschool years • Initiative is an interest in making things • Initiative is directing energy toward tackling tasks and not being upset by failure • “Make a plan and do it” • Children need to try out new materials and ideas • When adults belittle children’s work, guilt sets in • Virtue: Purpose
Initiative vs Guilt **Continued…. • HighScope places high priority on creating an environment in the classroom that encourages experimentation, exploration, and pursuing child’s own interests • HighScope shows teachers how to: • Offer children opportunities to make choices • Provide children ample opportunities for creative expression • Allow children freedom to explore the environment • Permit children to get messy during play • Encourage children to work independently (cultural!) • Value children’s ideas • Promote problem-solving and appropriate risk taking
Piaget:Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Piaget studied how logical thinking unfolds • Believed in stages (like Erikson) • Young children think differently than older children • Conservation • Children refine logic through manipulating objects • Different shapes • Different sizes • Different colors • Children learn to sort, classify, compare, sequence • Knowledge grows as they experiment, make discoveries, and modify early thinking to incorporate new insights • Accommodation and assimilation • Accommodation observes new things; assimilations establishes new ways of thinking
Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Four stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor (infancy) • Preoperational (2 – 5) • Concrete operations (6 – 12) • Formal operations (12 +)
Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Sensorimotor (infancy – 2) • Child learns through experiencing things through their senses • 6 substages, simple to complex • Reflexive • Repetitive movements with body • Make things happen with body • Make things happen with objects (first true intelligence) • Combine actions • Combine actions with intention, planning (object permanence)
Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Preoperational (2 – 5) • Centration (look at only one aspect at a time) • Focus on here and now (not future) • Focus on how things look (appearances) instead of logic • Unable to conserve • Egocentric (see things from their own point of view, everyone feels like they do) • Animistic Recent research now indicates these stages are more fluid and not as “clear” as Piaget believed
Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning (cont) • What this means for teacher: • Structure the environment and activities based on children’s cognitive development • Vary the complexity and levels of prompts, choices, comments, and questions for individual children • Create graphs showing the characteristics of objects according to color, or size • Look at objects and experiences from multiple perspectives • Arrange objects in order according to their length • Describe objects in terms of features • Cars are big and little, wide and narrow • Papers are rough and smooth, light and heavy
Vygotsky: Social Interaction and Learning • Children grow cognitively by acting on objects but also by interacting with adults and more knowledgeable peers • Teachers provide verbal directions, physical assistance, ask probing questions to help children improve skills and acquire knowledge • Scaffolding • Zone of proximal development • Teachers support learning, teach skills, observe and document what children can do
Items needed for class next week. • Classroom supply kit: Scissors, Markers, Crayons, Glue stick, Glue, Pen, Pencil • Small pot for planting. • An apple • I will need 5 to 6 dice. • Reading Assignment: Principles of child development and learning that inform developmentally appropriate practice. • & Theorist pages 3-13.