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Introduction to Curriculum

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  1. Introduction to Curriculum Child Development Theorist & Theories. ~Jeanette Fanconi

  2. Child Development 107 Instructor: Jeanette Fanconi, M.A. Cell phone: 678-6889 Email: Book needed: Educating Young Children 3rd edition.

  3. What will happen tonight? Roll Icebreaker Activities Read and go through the syllabus Introduction of the Instructor Books & Songs Lecture In class activities

  4. Student Introductions • Please tell your group name, program, position or future position & what you think “today’s preschool system” should look like?

  5. Your thoughts on what today’s preschool system should “look like”, would be an example of your philosophy.

  6. What is a philosophy? • A philosophy is a comprehensive system of ideas about human nature and the nature of the reality we live in. It is a guide for living, because the issues it addresses are basic and pervasive, determining the course we take in life and how we treat other people.

  7. So what does that mean? • It is what we believe in. It is what is important to us. It is our commitment to our students, parents, and follow colleagues.

  8. Our philosophy leads to our Policies.

  9. What are policies? • A policy is defined as a specific statement of principles or guiding actions that imply clear commitment by your facility; a statement of values or intent that provides a basis for consistent decision making and resource allocation; or a definite method or course of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.

  10. There are several reasons that policies are established, including: • To respond to legal or regulatory guidelines • To resolve a conflict or problem • To recognize the legitimate interest of all parties

  11. What is Curriculum • In it’s broadest sense a curriculum may refer to all “courses” offered at school. • It is your philosophy • It is everything that you do with your students, from the moment they walk into your classroom till the moment they leave. • It is what you put into your environment.

  12. Child Development • Why should you, as an early childhood professional, know about child development theories, and how are they relevant to your practice?

  13. Maslow: Basic Needs and Learning • Hierarchy of needs: • Physical • Safety needs • Love/Belonging • Esteem • Self Actualization

  14. Physical Needs: Basic Needs Physical needs-(physiological) • Air, food, water, “bodily comforts”

  15. Safety Needs • Safety needs • Stability, Structure, and order. • Security from danger: physical, emotional, psychological • Freedom to explore for young children • May need adaptations for children with disabilities

  16. Love/Belonging • Love/Belonging • Accepted, respected, loved, connected, belonging • Children's behavior is often the result of their basic needs not being met.

  17. Self-esteem • Esteem • Pride in oneself. • Self-respect and respect from others • Emerges from daily experiences, predominantly successful and positive, sense of self grows

  18. Self Actualization • Self-Actualization: one’s full potential • The Ah Ha! Moment. • What you were born to do! • Your calling.

  19. Erik Erikson: The Emotions and Learning • Eight Stages of Man • Each stage builds on the success of earlier stages • Trust vs mistrust (infancy) • Built through trusting your physical needs will be met • Autonomy vs shame and doubt (toddler, 1 – 3 years) • I can do it, I can do it myself! • Toilet training • Initiative vs guilt (3 – 5 years) • Make a plan, do it!

  20. Trust vs Mistrust • World is safe and reliable • World will respond to your needs • Consistent and loving care teaches the infant to trust • When infant cries and gets no response, not fed when hungry, not comforted when hurt teaches the infant to mistrust • Virtue: Hope • Creative Curriculum shows teachers how to: • Know and develop a positive relationship with each child • Follow a consistent schedule • Carry through on announced plans and promises

  21. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt(1 – 3 yrs) • Independence, acting willingly and by free choice • Sense of one’s power that builds on the foundation of trust • Autonomy develops when adults allow toddlers to do things on their own • When adults make excessive demands or criticize the child’s efforts, they develop shame and doubt • Virtue: Will!

  22. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt**continued…. • HighScope Curriculum shows teachers how to: • Help children become autonomous by providing structure to regulate their own behavior • Honor children’s efforts to become independent and foster competence • Set up an environment where children can find and return materials on their own • Provide appropriate play materials that support and challenge children’s abilities • Help children express their feelings in constructive ways • Provide appropriate real-world responsibilities and jobs • Encourage children to see tasks through to completion

  23. Initiative vs Guilt3 – 5 years • Primary achievement of the preschool years • Initiative is an interest in making things • Initiative is directing energy toward tackling tasks and not being upset by failure • “Make a plan and do it” • Children need to try out new materials and ideas • When adults belittle children’s work, guilt sets in • Virtue: Purpose

  24. Initiative vs Guilt **Continued…. • HighScope places high priority on creating an environment in the classroom that encourages experimentation, exploration, and pursuing child’s own interests • HighScope shows teachers how to: • Offer children opportunities to make choices • Provide children ample opportunities for creative expression • Allow children freedom to explore the environment • Permit children to get messy during play • Encourage children to work independently (cultural!) • Value children’s ideas • Promote problem-solving and appropriate risk taking

  25. Piaget:Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Piaget studied how logical thinking unfolds • Believed in stages (like Erikson) • Young children think differently than older children • Conservation • Children refine logic through manipulating objects • Different shapes • Different sizes • Different colors • Children learn to sort, classify, compare, sequence • Knowledge grows as they experiment, make discoveries, and modify early thinking to incorporate new insights • Accommodation and assimilation • Accommodation observes new things; assimilations establishes new ways of thinking

  26. Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Four stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor (infancy) • Preoperational (2 – 5) • Concrete operations (6 – 12) • Formal operations (12 +)

  27. Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Sensorimotor (infancy – 2) • Child learns through experiencing things through their senses • 6 substages, simple to complex • Reflexive • Repetitive movements with body • Make things happen with body • Make things happen with objects (first true intelligence) • Combine actions • Combine actions with intention, planning (object permanence)

  28. Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning • Preoperational (2 – 5) • Centration (look at only one aspect at a time) • Focus on here and now (not future) • Focus on how things look (appearances) instead of logic • Unable to conserve • Egocentric (see things from their own point of view, everyone feels like they do) • Animistic Recent research now indicates these stages are more fluid and not as “clear” as Piaget believed

  29. Piaget: Logical Thinking and Reasoning (cont) • What this means for teacher: • Structure the environment and activities based on children’s cognitive development • Vary the complexity and levels of prompts, choices, comments, and questions for individual children • Create graphs showing the characteristics of objects according to color, or size • Look at objects and experiences from multiple perspectives • Arrange objects in order according to their length • Describe objects in terms of features • Cars are big and little, wide and narrow • Papers are rough and smooth, light and heavy

  30. Vygotsky: Social Interaction and Learning • Children grow cognitively by acting on objects but also by interacting with adults and more knowledgeable peers • Teachers provide verbal directions, physical assistance, ask probing questions to help children improve skills and acquire knowledge • Scaffolding • Zone of proximal development • Teachers support learning, teach skills, observe and document what children can do

  31. Items needed for class next week. • Classroom supply kit: Scissors, Markers, Crayons, Glue stick, Glue, Pen, Pencil • Small pot for planting. • An apple • I will need 5 to 6 dice. • Reading Assignment: Principles of child development and learning that inform developmentally appropriate practice. • & Theorist pages 3-13.