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Exemplary Practice in Literacy Instruction. Lesley Mandel Morrow Rutgers University Lmorro@rci.rutgers.edu Graduate School of Education 10 Seminary Place New Brunswick, NJ 08901. Relevant References.

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exemplary practice in literacy instruction

Exemplary Practice in Literacy Instruction

Lesley Mandel Morrow

Rutgers University

Lmorro@rci.rutgers.edu

Graduate School of Education

10 Seminary Place

New Brunswick, NJ 08901

relevant references
Relevant References
  • Morrow, L.M. (2002, 2nd edition)The Literacy Center: contexts for Reading and Writing. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publications
  • Morrow, L.M. (2003)Organizing and Managing the Language Arts Block: A Professional Development Plan. New York, Guildford Publications
  • Morrow, L.M. (2005, 5th edition) Literacy Development in the Early Years: Helping Children Read and Write: Bostonk Allyn and Bacon.
slide3

Statistics from the U.S. Dept. of Labor, U.S. Dept. of Education, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services and U.S. Dept. of Justice

  • Children who learn to read become adults who are:
    • Likely to succeed in Elementary School
    • Likely to Graduate from High School
    • Likely to be Healthier during their lives
    • Less likely to get into trouble with the law
    • Likely to have a middle-class life style
    • Earn more than those who are illiterate
    • Likely to have children who learn to read
those who don t learn to read
Those Who Don’t Learn to Read
  • 50% of patients with chronic illness are illiterate
  • 70% of prisoners tested scored functionally illiterate on a national literacy survey
  • 50% of the unemployed are functionally illiterate
  • Those who are functionally illiterate earn 5 times less than those that are literate
  • Those with lowest literacy skills live in poverty
  • Children in poverty are more likely to be illiterate

causing the Achievement Gap

politically correct and incorrect literacy terms
Politically INCORRECT

Homogeneous Grouping

Standardized Tests

Basal Readers

Explicit Instruction

Literal Worksheets

Phonics/Skills Based

Direct Instruction

Curriculum Driven

Skilled Reader

Politically CORRECT

Flexible Grouping

Portfolio Assessment

Literature-Based

Cooperative Learning

Open-ended Discussions

Whole Language

Authentic Instruction

Child Centered

Engaged Reader

Politically Correct andIncorrect Literacy Terms
politically correct and incorrect literacy terms1
Politically CORRECT

Homogeneous Grouping

Standardized Tests

Basal Readers

Explicit Instruction

Literal Worksheets

Phonics/Skills Based

Direct Instruction

Curriculum Driven

Skilled Reader

Politically INCORRECT

Flexible Grouping

Portfolio Assessment

Literature-Based

Cooperative Learning

Open-ended Discussions

Whole Language

Authentic Instruction

Child Centered

Engaged Reader

Politically Correct andIncorrect Literacy Terms
no child left behind
No Child Left Behind
  • Prevention
  • Accountability
  • Grants to Implement Reading First and Early Reading First
how to succeed with no child left behind
How To Succeed WithNo Child Left Behind:

Teaching Includes:

  • Explicit Modeling
  • Guided Practice/Scaffolding
  • Independent Practice
  • Structure and Routines
  • Build Background Knowledge
  • More Time on Task
  • Feedback
excellent teachers know there is more
Excellent Teachers Know there is More
  • Problem Solving
  • Exploring, experimenting
  • Open-ended experiences
  • Choice
  • Collaboration
  • Social Interaction
national reading panel report findings
National Reading Panel Report Findings:

According to the National Reading Panel Report, instruction in the following areas is necessary for achievement:

  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary Development

Many areas in reading instruction were not included in this study. Only quantitative research and studies identified as scientifically based by the panel were consulted. Many respected investigations were not included.

professional development
Professional Development
  • Continuous
  • Your own personal plan
  • The School Plan
  • 100 hours a year, 3 hours a week
professional development1
Professional Development
  • First year teachers mentored by exemplary teachers
  • Attend Professional Conferences
  • Teacher input and collaboration with peers
  • Administrative support
  • Time to change
  • Goal setting
  • Knowledgeable consultants to motivate
  • Coaches provide modeling
  • Teacher study groups to share and reflect
according to research from the following groups
According to Research from the following groups:

Children are more successful developing literacy when they have excellent teachers

  • The Program for the Improvement of Student
  • Achievement (PISA)
  • The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA)
  • The Center for English Language Achievement and Assessment (CELA)

Researchers

(Allington, Johnston, Morrow, Pearson,

Pressley, Ruddell, Taylor)

characteristics of exemplary literacy instruction
Varied Strategies

Grouping to Meet Individual Differences

High expectations

Teachers Care

Constructive Feedback

Productively Engaged

Explicit Instruction

Problem Solving

Organization & Management Skills:

eg. Rules

Quality Preparation & Continuous Professional Development

Characteristics of Exemplary Literacy Instruction
slide18

Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated WhoWonderful Teachers Are Appreciated and Good Teachers are appreciated and CanMake Our Children’s Dreams Come True

Dear Mrs. Eisen,

You are sweeter then a sweet potato. You are beter than a

chocalate ice crème with foge.

I love you. Caprice

Dear Mrs. Rupper,

I love you so mutch. I think of you all the tim. I need to give you a hug all the time. I will alwayz think of you.

Love, MariCarmen

Dear Mrs. Roman,

I like to talk to flowers on

Saturday and Sunday. But I really get to talk to one all the other days in school when I talk to you.

I love you, Orlando

Dear Mrs. Heyer

When I grow up, I want to be just like you.

Love, Tania

reading is complex
Syntax

Association

Cultural Background

Contextually Based Text

Comprehension

Motivation

Predictability

Life Experience

Sight Words

Picture Clues

Controlled Vocabulary

Repetition

Phonemic Awareness

Phonics

Writing

Visual Discrimination

Reading is Complex
literacy centers
Literacy Centers
  • Rocking Chair, Rugs, Throw Pillows
  • Computer
  • Multiple Genre Books (5-8 per child and 3-4 grade levels)
  • Open Faced Shelving
  • Books Stored By Genre
  • Leveled Books
  • Felt Board and Roll Stories
  • Headset and Taped Stories
  • Method For Checking Out Books
  • Books on Tape
  • Rules
  • Demonstrations For Using Materials
  • Accountability
multiple genres available
Multiple Genres Available
  • Fiction
  • Non-Fiction
  • Picture Books
  • Informational Books
  • Magazines
  • Biography
  • Poetry
  • Novels
what children said about literacy center time
What Children said about Literacy Center Time
  • The literacy center is nice and cozy and there are lots of good books you can choose from (Choice)
  • Reading is fun in the center because you can read with a friend. When you need help your friend helps you. (Collaboration)
  • You can take books home right from the center (Access)
  • You can choose easy books, hard books, long books, short books. (choice, challenge)
  • I get more done because I can work with others (Collaboration)
  • The only thing missing from literacy center time is a snack bar.
the exemplary day
The Exemplary Day
  • Independent Reading and Writing
  • Morning Message
  • Thematic Storybook Reading
  • Mini Skill Lesson
  • Mini Comprehension Lesson
  • Modeling Center Activities
  • Guided Reading
  • Writing Workshop
  • Environment
why do we use centers
Why do we use Centers
  • Children get to practice skills learned
  • Children learn to be independent, self directed, and how to collaborate with peers
  • Provides activities when other assigned work is completed.
  • Allows teacher to meet with guided reading groups or individuals to teach skills
types of centers activities
Types of Centers & Activities
  • Word Study Center:
    • With onset and rime letters create words for the following word families-- et, up, op, an, at. Write down the word families.
  • Listening/Comprehension Center:
    • Listen to the story on the headsets and follow along in the book
    • Fill out the graphic organizer for story structure elements.
    • Do one illustration for one story structure element
  • Writing Center:
    • Retell the story using the felt board and story characters provided.
    • Write the retelling.
  • Library Corner:
    • Select an informational book that was read to the class.
    • Partner read the book
    • Discuss and then write and illustrate the part you liked the most
  • Choice Activities When other Center Work is Completed:
    • Read a book silently. Illustrate the part you like most.
    • Do a program on the computer center
    • Use one of the games in the word study center
    • Write a short book about the theme being studied in your classroom
practicing comprehension with center materials
Practicing Comprehension with CENTER MATERIALS

1. Felt Board Stories

Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt

or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board.

2. Roll Movies

stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene.

3. Prop Stories

A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks.

4. Puppet Stories

Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets.

5.Chalk Talks

Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.

how kids go from one center to another
How kids go from one center to another:
  • Teacher assigns kids
  • Center board indicates
  • Change with the guided reading group
  • Ring a bell, set a Timer
  • Assign three activities allow one choice activity
guided reading
GUIDED READING
      • Explicit Skill Instruction
      • To meet Individual Needs
      • Use of appropriate materials
      • Assessing Achievement
  • Nature of Groups
  • Change frequently
  • As many as you need, not 3
  • 3 to 5 kids in a group
  • Selected by similar needs
  • Meet daily or less for 5-30 minutes
  • Select groups using multiple measures such as:
  • Running Records
  • Observation
  • Standardized Assessment
  • Teacher Judgment
  • Alternate Rank Ordering
  • Books at Child’s Instructional Level is determined by:
  • Print size, Language patterns
  • Illustrations, Vocabulary repetition
  • Types of words, Numbers of words
  • Number of different words, Length of sentences
  • Length of book, Predictability, Decodable elements
assessment in guided reading
Assessment in Guided Reading
  • Ongoing assessment of daily progress
  • Progress note sent home once a week for each child
  • Have a focus child daily
  • Running records monitor progress and determine:
    • Reading level, strengths, needs, instruction,
slide32
Explicit modeling:

Teacher does a lesson to introduce skills with center material

Guided Practice:

Materials are used with the teacher’s help

Independent Practice:

Materials placed in center for children to use

Include written directions for use

Include accountability for all center activities

Include rules during Center Time

Put completed work in a designated spot

Helping children to use center activities

steps in a guided reading lesson
Steps in a guided reading lesson

Before reading:

  • Review something done before
  • Introduce new story
  • Vocabulary development
  • Set a purpose for reading
  • Build Background Knowledge
  • Comprehension development
  • Word study lessons
  • During Reading
  • Teacher reads story to children
  • Children read story together
  • Older children read alone
  • After Reading:
  • More Comprehension work
  • Respond to book
  • Word Study development
parent involvement
Parent Involvement
  • Food
  • Babysitting
  • Transportation
  • Incentives
  • Parent Report Card
  • Multiple times/tasks for parents to help with during school, after school, and at home
  • Culturally Sensitive Programs
  • Be Persistent
vocabulary development
Vocabulary Development

What Is Vocabulary?

  • A set of words for which we know the meaning.

Types Of Vocabulary To Learn:

  • Listening Vocabulary
  • Speaking Vocabulary
  • Reading Vocabulary
  • Writing Vocabulary

What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Vocabulary?

  • Learn use of dictionary
  • Language word parts (prefix, suffix, roots)
  • Use of context clues
  • Themes, stories, play, music, art, science, and social studies
comprehension
Comprehension

What Is Comprehension?

  • Constructing meaning while actively involved with text

What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Comprehension?

  • Collaboration and Cooperative Learning
  • Retelling
  • Graphic and Semantic Organizers - Maps, Webs, Venn Diagrams, KWL, etc.
  • Self Monitoring
  • Answering Questions About Inference and Prediction
  • Generating Questions
  • Use of Prior Knowledge
  • Mental Imagery
  • Multiple Strategy In Structure
franklin in the dark retelling by phillip age 5
Franklin In The Dark RetellingBy Phillip, Age 5

Phillip: Franklin In The Dark.

One time Franklin didn’t want to go in his

shell. He was too scared. But his Mama said,“There’s

nothin’ in there. But Franklin didn’t want to go in the

shell because there was monsters in there. He didn’t

like to go in because he was afraid.

At the end he went in and turned on a little night light

and went to sleep. That’s it.

practicing comprehension with center materials1
Practicing Comprehension with CENTER MATERIALS

1. Felt Board Stories

Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt

or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board.

2. Roll Movies

stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene.

3. Prop Stories

A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks.

4. Puppet Stories

Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets.

5.Chalk Talks

Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.

fluency
FLUENCY

What is Fluency?

  • Reading orally with automaticity (ability to decode)and prosody (use of appropriate expression and speed, demonstrating comprehension).

What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Fluency?

  • Echo Reading
  • Choral Reading
  • Antiphonal Choral Reading
  • Partner and Paired Reading (Collaborative Oral Reading)
  • Repeated Reading
  • Listening To Good Reading On Tape
  • Readers Theater
  • Listening and Critiquing Your Own Reading On Tape
relationship between amount of recreational reading and scores on standardized reading tests
Percentile Rank

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

98

Minutes Reading/Day

.7

1.9

3.3

5.0

6.4

10.0

14.2

20.0

65.0

Relationship Between Amount of Recreational Reading and Scores on Standardized Reading Tests
writing
Writing

What Is Writing?

  • Oral language written down. It includes use of narrative, expository, and functional text.

What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Writing?

  • Composition Of Narrative
  • Composition Of Expository
  • Functional Writing
  • Spelling
  • Handwriting
  • Punctuation
phonemic awareness and phonics
Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

What is Phonemic Awareness?

  • Knowing that words are comprised of a sequence of spoken sounds

What is Phonics?

  • The relationship between written letters and their sounds

What strategies do we use to teach Phonemic Awareness

and Phonics?

  • Phonological Awareness (Hearing individual sounds in words)
  • Phonemic Isolation (Identifying and manipulating sounds)
  • Phonemic Identity (Recognizing same sound in a different word)
  • Phonemic Categorization (Recognizing words that don’t belong)
  • Rhyming
  • Segmenting (Breaking a word into its separate sounds)
  • Blending (Putting together separate sounds)
  • Authentic: Literature Based
  • Using Art, Music, Manipulatives, and Worksheets
this old man
THIS OLD MAN

This old man he sings H songs

He sings H songs all day long

With a Hick, Hack, Haddy, Hack

Sing this silly song

He wants you to sing along

(Tick, Tack, Taddy, Tack)

(Sick, Sack, Saddy, Sack)

(Mick, Mack, Maddy, Mack)

(Pick, Pack, Paddy, Pack)

the name game by shirley ellis
THE NAME GAME - By Shirley Ellis

Shirley!

Shirley, Shirley bo Birley Bonana fanna fo Firley Fee fy mo Mirley, Shirley!

Lincoln!

Lincoln, Lincoln bo Bincoln Bonana fanna fo Fincoln Fee fy mo Mincoln, Lincoln!

Come on everybody, I say now let’s play a game,

I betcha I can make a rhyme out of anybody’s name

The first letter of the name, I treat it like it wasn’t there, But a B or an F or an M will appear

And then I say bo, add a B, then I say the name and Bonana fanna and a fo

And then I say the name again with an M this time and

there isn’t any name that I can’t rhyme

Arnold!

Arnold, Arnold bo Barnold Bonana fanna fo Farnold Fee fy mo Marnold Arnold!

But if the first two letters are ever the same, I drop them both and say the name like

Bob, Bob drop the B’s Bo ob

For Fred, Fred drop the F’s Fo red, For May, Mary drop the M’s Mo ary

That’s the only rule that is contrary

thomas jefferson s beliefs about literacy education
Thomas Jefferson’s Beliefs About Literacy Education
  • The ability of every citizen to read is necessary to the practice of democracy
  • Reading should be taught during the earliest yeas of schooling
  • Reading will ensure that the people will be able to be safe and be the guardians of their own liberty.
we can make our children s dreams come true
We Can Make Our Children’s Dreams Come True

Japanese Proverb

  • Better than 1000 days of diligent study
  • Is one day with a great teacher