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Exemplary Practice in Early Literacy. Lesley M. Morrow Rutgers University www.rci.rutgers.edu.lmorro. Preschool Focus. Sessions for preschool teachers at conferences A position statement: Literacy and Preschool: A National Imperative

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Exemplary Practice in Early Literacy


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    1. Exemplary Practice in Early Literacy Lesley M. Morrow Rutgers University www.rci.rutgers.edu.lmorro

    2. Preschool Focus • Sessions for preschool teachers at conferences • A position statement: Literacy and Preschool: A National Imperative • A collection of books for preschool literacy for teachers of 3’s and 4’s

    3. Early Literacy Collection • Building a Foundation for Preschool Literacy - By Carol Vukelich and Jim Christi • Oral Language and Early Literacy in Preschool • - By Kathy Roskos and Patton Tabors • Learning About Print in Preschool – By Dorothy Strickland and Judy Schickedanz • Writing in PreschooL – By Judy Schickedanz and Renee Casbergue • Using Children's Literature in Preschool - Lesley M. Morrow and Linda Gambrell

    4. Outline of my Presentation • What’s happening nationally • Research on Good Teaching • Professional Development • Parent Involvement • The Classroom Environment: • The Literacy Center • An Exemplary Early Literacy Program • Developing Skills Storybook reading and telling Vocabulary and background knowledge Phonemic awareness, Phonics Comprehension Fluency Writing • An Exemplary Early Literacy Program

    5. Most Important Elements in Learning to Read The Three P’s for Success in Reading • Preschool • Professional Development • Parent Involvement

    6. Bad News: Good News • If you have a limited vocabulary at age 3 because of a limited experiences, you are already at risk for literacy development • If you attend a quality preschool you can catch up

    7. According to Research:Children Who Don’t Attend Preschool Are: • More likely to be retained in the primary grades • More likely to have discipline problems • Less likely to graduate from high school (Barnett, Hart and Risely)

    8. U.S. Department of Education,Dept. of Health and Human ServicesDept. of Justice, Dept. of Labor • Children who learn to read become adults who can make their dreams come true since they are: • Likely to succeed in Elementary School • Likely to Graduate from High School • Likely to be Healthier during their lives • Less likely to get into trouble with the law • Likely to have a middle-class life style • Earn more than those who are illiterate • Likely to have children who learn to read

    9. What do we know about those who are illiterate • 50% of patients with chronic illness are illiterate • 70% of prisoners tested scored functionally illiterate • 50% of the unemployed are functionally illiterate • Those who are functionally illiterate earn 5 times less than those that are literate • 50% of those with the lowest literacy skills live in poverty • Children in poverty are more likely to be illiterate, and we have the Achievement Gap

    10. Politically CORRECT Achievement Grouping Standardized Tests Basal Readers Explicit Instruction Literal Worksheets Phonics/Skills Based Direct Instruction Curriculum Driven Skilled Reader Politically INCORRECT Flexible Grouping Portfolio Assessment Literature-Based Cooperative Learning Open-ended Discussions Whole Language Authentic Instruction Child Centered Engaged Reader Politically Correct andIncorrect Literacy Terms

    11. Politically INCORRECT Achievement Grouping Standardized Tests Basal Readers Explicit Instruction Literal Worksheets Phonics/Skills Based Direct Instruction Curriculum Driven Skilled Reader Politically CORRECT Flexible Grouping Portfolio Assessment Literature-Based Cooperative Learning Open-ended Discussions Whole Language Authentic Instruction Child Centered Engaged Reader Politically Correct andIncorrect Literacy Terms

    12. National Reading Panel Report Findings: According to the National Reading Panel Report, instruction in the following areas is necessary for achievement: • Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Comprehension • Fluency • Vocabulary Development Many areas in reading instruction were not included in this study. Only quantitative research and studies identified as scientifically based by the panel were consulted. Many respected investigations were not included.

    13. How Do we Deal With:The National Early Literacy Panel Report • Oral Language Development Expressive Receptive Vocabulary • Alphabetic Code Alphabet Knowledge Phonological/Phonemic awareness Invented spelling • Print Knowledge Environmental print Concepts about print • Other Skills Rapid naming of letters and numbers Visual memory Visual perception Skills

    14. How To Succeed With: No Child Left Behind, Reading First, & Early Reading First Teaching Includes: • Intentional/ Explicit Modeling • Guided Practice/Scaffolding • Independent Practice • Structure and Routines • Build Background Knowledge • More Time on Task • Feedback

    15. Excellent Teachers Know there is More • Problem Solving • Exploring, experimenting • Open-ended experiences • Choice • Collaboration • Social Interaction

    16. Syntax Association Cultural Background Contextually Based Text Comprehension Motivation Predictability Life Experience Sight Words Picture Clues Controlled Vocabulary Repetition Phonemic Awareness Phonics Writing Visual Discrimination Reading is Complex

    17. According to Research from the following groups: Children are more successful developing literacy when they have excellent teachers • The Program for the Improvement of Student • Achievement (PISA) • The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) • The Center for English Language Achievement and Assessment (CELA) Researchers (Allington, Johnston, Morrow, Pearson, Pressley, Ruddell, Taylor)

    18. Exemplary teachers have students who score well on reading tests.

    19. Varied Strategies Grouping to Meet Individual Differences High expectations Teachers Care Teachers attend to Social, Emotional, Physical and intellectual development Constructive Feedback Productively Engaged Explicit Instruction Problem Solving Organization & Management Skills: eg. Rules Quality Preparation & Continuous Professional Development Characteristics of Exemplary Literacy Instruction(What do you See in the Video)

    20. Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated WhoWonderful Teachers Are Appreciated and Good Teachers are appreciated and CanMake Our Children’s Dreams Come True Dear Mrs. Eisen, You are sweeter then a sweet potato. You are beter than a chocalate ice crème with foge. I love you. Caprice Dear Mrs. Rupper, I love you so mutch. I think of you all the tim. I need to give you a hug all the time. I will alwayz think of you. Love, MariCarmen Dear Mrs. Roman, I like to talk to flowers on Saturday and Sunday. But I really get to talk to one all the other days in school when I talk to you. I love you, Orlando Dear Mrs. Heyer When I grow up, I want to be just like you. Love, Tania

    21. In preschool we need to help children self regulate appropriate: Social, Emotional, Physical Language and Literacy Development:But how are preschooler’s time spent? • 35% of time spent in routines meals, lining up, bathroom, cleaning up • 32% free choice, center time • 23% whole group • 6% small group

    22. Time Spent on the Development of Skills • 12 % literacy • 6% math • 1% writing • 8% science, 13% social studies • 9% art/music • 7% motor • 44% in none of the skill development

    23. What is the Extent of Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschool • 8% Elaborated • 18% minimal • 1% routine • 73% none

    24. A Model for a Typical Preschool Day 8:00 to 8:30: Children arrive and use quiet materials 8:30 to 9:00: whole group class meeting with a focus on an overview of the day. Morning message, a story, a mini lesson 9:00 10:00: Activities in Center Play settings Teacher works with small groups to meet individual needs 10:00 to 10:20: Clean-up and snack 10:20 to 10:45: Shared storybook reading 10:45-11:15: Outdoor play or indoor gym play 11:15 -11:45- Songs, poems, movement 11:45- 12:0: Review of the day

    25. The Exemplary Day • Independent Reading and Writing • Morning Message • Thematic Storybook Reading • Mini Skill Lesson • Mini Comprehension Lesson • Modeling Center Activities • Guided Reading • Writing Workshop

    26. Professional Development • First year teachers mentored by exemplary teachers • Attend Professional Conferences • Teacher input and collaboration with peers • Administrative support • Time to change • Goal setting • Knowledgeable consultants to motivate • Coaches provide modeling • Teacher study groups to share and reflect • Continuous through your career • School Plan and a Personal Plan • 100 hours a year or 3 hours a week represents change

    27. You may have tangible wealth untold,Caskets of jewels and coffers of gold,Richer than I you could never be,I had parents who read to me.

    28. Types of Centers & Activities for Literacy • Word Study Center: • With onset and rime letters create words for the following word families-- et, up, op, an, at. Write down the word families. • Listening/Comprehension Center: • Listen to the story on the headsets and follow along in the book • Fill out the graphic organizer for story structure elements. • Do one illustration for one story structure element • Writing Center: Provide paper of all sorts Provide colored pencils, markers, crayons et Write and rewrite stories Make lists • Library Corner: Select an informational book that was read to the class. • Partner read the book • Discuss and then write and illustrate the part you liked the most • Choice Activities When other Center Work is Completed: • Read a book silently. Illustrate the part you like most. • Do a program on the computer center • Use one of the games in the word study center • Write a short book about the theme being studied in your classroom

    29. Literacy Centers • Rocking Chair, Rugs, Throw Pillows • Computer • Multiple Genre Books (5-8 per child and 3-4 grade levels) • Open Faced Shelving • Books Stored By Genre • Leveled Books • Felt Board and Roll Stories • Headset and Taped Stories • Method For Checking Out Books • Books on Tape • Rules • Demonstrations For Using Materials • Accountability

    30. Multiple Genres Available • Fiction • Non-Fiction • Picture Books • Informational Books • Magazines • Biography • Poetry • Novels

    31. What Children said about Literacy Center Time • The literacy center is nice and cozy and there are lots of good books you can choose from (Choice) • Reading is fun in the center because you can read with a friend. When you need help your friend helps you. (Collaboration) • You can take books home right from the center (Access) • You can choose easy books, hard books, long books, short books. (choice, challenge) • I get more done because I can work with others (Collaboration) • The only thing missing from literacy center time is a snack bar.

    32. Modeling Center Activities

    33. Why do we use Centers • Children get to practice skills learned • Children learn to be independent, self directed, and how to collaborate with piers • Provides activities when other assigned work is completed. • Allows teacher to meet with guided reading groups or individuals to teach skills

    34. Explicit modeling: Teacher does a lesson to introduce skills with center material Guided Practice: Materials are used with the teacher’s help Independent Practice: Materials placed in center for children to use Include written directions for use Include accountability for all center activities Include rules during Center Time Put completed work in a designated spot Helping children to use center activities

    35. How kids go from one center to another: • Teacher assigns kids • Center board indicates • Change with the guided reading group • Ring a bell, set a Timer • Assign three activities allow one choice activity

    36. Vocabulary Development What Is Vocabulary? • A set of words for which we know the meaning. Types Of Vocabulary To Learn: • Listening Vocabulary • Speaking Vocabulary • Reading Vocabulary • Writing Vocabulary What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Vocabulary? • Learn use of dictionary • Language word parts (prefix, suffix, roots) • Use of context clues • Themes, stories, play, music, art, science, and social studies

    37. The Values of and types of Story Reading and Story Telling • Values of Storybook Reading and Story Telling • Gain Information • Motivates a desire to read • Enhances language development • Develops Sense of Story Structure • Types of Storybook Reading and Story telling • Felt board • Music stories • Prop stories • Sound stories • Puppet stories • Chalk talk

    38. Good Narrative andExpository Text Narrative • setting • Theme • Plot Episodes • Resolution Expository Description Sequence Comparison Cause and Effect Problem Solution

    39. Characteristics Good Books • Biography • Story of a person life’s • Non-fiction • Clarity, factual accuracy • Poetry • Rhyme, images • Folklore patterned language, fast pace • Fantasy • Believable, consistent, logical, conflict, characterization • Science Fiction • Speculative, extrapolation of fact • Realistic • Possible, plausible, conflict • Historical Fiction • Details, setting affects plot, keeping with the period

    40. Good Illustration • What medium • Suitable for text • Colors right • Style of illustrations: bold, dleicat • Unique, why • Balance and harmony • Is there a mood • Grace • Conveys convincing characters and plot • Consistent style • Accuracy

    41. Comprehension What Is Comprehension? • Constructing meaning while actively involved with text What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Comprehension? • Collaboration and Cooperative Learning • Retelling • Graphic and Semantic Organizers - Maps, Webs, Venn Diagrams, KWL, etc. • Self Monitoring • Answering Questions About Inference and Prediction • Generating Questions • Use of Prior Knowledge • Mental Imagery • Multiple Strategy In Structure

    42. The Values of and types of Story Reading and Story Telling • Values of Storybook Reading and Story Telling • Gain Information • Motivates a desire to read • Enhances language development • Develops Sense of Story Structure • Types of Storybook Reading and Story telling • Felt board • Music stories • Prop stories • Sound stories • Puppet stories • Chalk talk

    43. Practicing Comprehension with CENTER MATERIALS 1. Felt Board Stories Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board. 2. Roll Movies stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene. 3. Prop Stories A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks. 4. Puppet Stories Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets. 5.Chalk Talks Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.