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The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace. Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop Carter Davis Pacific EMPRINTS Program. Threats & Problems. Farm Chemicals Industrial Chemicals Biological Terrorism Storage Transportation Proper Use. Chemicals. Hazard Class 1: Explosives.

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the growing threat of the agriculture workplace

The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace

Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop

Carter Davis

Pacific EMPRINTS Program

threats problems
Threats & Problems
  • Farm Chemicals
  • Industrial Chemicals
  • Biological
  • Terrorism
  • Storage
  • Transportation
  • Proper Use
hazard class 1 explosives
Hazard Class 1: Explosives
  • Background color:
    • Orange
  • Symbol:
    • Exploding ball
hazard class 2 gases
Hazard Class 2: Gases
  • Background color:
    • Varies
  • Symbol:
    • Varies
  • Non-flammable gases, flammable gases, poisonous gases

INHALATION

HAZARD

hazard class 3 flammable liquids
Hazard Class 3: Flammable Liquids
  • Background color:
    • Red
  • Symbol:
    • Flame
  • Flammable & combustible liquids
hazard class 4 flammable solids
Hazard Class 4: Flammable Solids
  • Background color:
    • Red & white candy striped
    • Blue if reacts with water
  • Flammable solids, spontaneously combustibles, dangerous when wet
hazard class 5 oxidizers organic peroxides
Hazard Class 5: Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides
  • Background color:
    • Yellow
  • Symbol:
    • Flaming ball
hazard class 6 poisons etiologic materials
Hazard Class 6:Poisons & Etiologic Materials
  • Background color:
    • White, with black lettering for poisons

INHALATIONHAZARD

hazard class 7 radioactive materials
Hazard Class 7: Radioactive Materials
  • Background color:
    • White on the bottom, yellow on the top
  • Symbol:
    • Trefoil
hazard class 8 corrosives
Hazard Class 8: Corrosives
  • Background color:
    • Black on the bottom, white on the top
  • Symbol:
    • Piece of metal and a hand damaged by liquid
  • Acidsand bases
hazard class 9 miscellaneous
Hazard Class 9: Miscellaneous
  • Hazardous materials not specified in other classes
facility markings
Facility Markings
  • NFPA 704 Marking System
slide14
Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS)
  • Generally used on smaller transfer containers
farm chemicals
Farm Chemicals
  • Pesticides
    • Insecticides
    • Rodenticides
    • Fungicides
    • Herbicides
  • Fertilizers
  • Animal Medications
  • Cleaning Agents and Solvents
pesticide safety
Pesticide Safety
  • Reduce risk to exposure and injury
    • Follow labels and MSDS
    • Wear appropriate PPE
    • Use the least hazardous chemicals at the recommended rate and concentration
    • Prepare only enough for immediate use
    • Verify application equipment is working properly and does not leak
    • Don’t eat, drink or smoke while pouring, mixing or applying
    • Work in pairs
    • Clean all equipment thoroughly and without contaminating the environment
    • Wash work clothes separately
    • Wash hands thoroughly after handling
pesticide safety1
Pesticide Safety
  • Take Additional Precautions
    • Have a first aid kit nearby and include resuscitation mask, eye wash solution, soap
    • Have fresh water available
    • Have all workers take first aid training
    • Check labels and MSDS for proper handling, application,
    • Check with nearby health care facilities for proper stock of antidotes and emergency supplies
    • Stop work and seek medical attention if there is any sign of muscular spasms, blurred vision, excessive saliva, or difficulty breathing
pesticide storage
Pesticide Storage
  • Store chemicals in a well-ventilated area
  • Store in shed with good lighting and has impervious floor and shelving
  • Use secondary containment
  • Store chemicals in original containers
  • Place an external sign indicating chemical storage
  • Keep incompatible materials separate
  • Keep a spill kit nearby
  • Keep away from food, animal feed, fertilizers and seeds
  • Have access to an emergency shower nearby
pesticide transport
Pesticide Transport
  • Avoid transporting with food, water, animal feed, fertilizers, seeds and reactive substances
  • Secure in or on vehicle to prevent movement and change in orientation.
  • Keep shipping documents or records of the items you are carrying
  • Carry a spill kit and appropriate personal protective equipment with the vehicle
pesticide disposal
Pesticide Disposal
  • Take notice of warnings on the labels regarding toxicity to non-target areas
  • Check label/MSDS for advice on disposal
  • Triple rinse empty containers
  • Uncap, puncture and crush all rinsed containers
  • When possible return containers to supplier or manufacture
  • Check with local government authority for information on safe disposal
fifra label requirements
FIFRA Label Requirements
  • Front Panel
    • Restricted Use Pesticide Statement (if applicable)
    • Product Name, Brand, Trademark
    • Ingredient Statement
    • Keep out of Reach of Children (KOOROC Statement)
    • Signal Word (Caution, Warning, Danger)
    • First Aid (Statement of Practical Treatment)
    • Skull & Crossbones “POISON” for high toxicity
    • Net Contents/Net Weight
fifra label requirements1
FIFRA Label Requirements
  • Front or Back Panel
    • EPA Registration Number & Establishment Number
    • Company Name and Address
  • Back Panel
    • Precautionary Statements (Hazards to Humans and Animals, Environmental Hazards, Physical and Chemical Hazards)
    • Directions for Use
    • Storage and Disposal
    • Warranty Statement
    • Worker Protection Labeling
c b r n e terrorism
C.B.R.N.E Terrorism

B

R

C

iological

adiological

hemical

N

E

uclear

xplosive

toxicology
Toxicology
  • What's Toxic? How is it determined?
  • Physical Hazards - Mechanical
    • Fire, Heat, Explosions, Falling Objects
  • Health Hazards - Biological
    • Bodily Contact
    • Immediate and/or Delayed Reactions
slide28
Dose
  • Concentration
    • percent,
    • PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg
concentration
1,000,000 ppm = %

100%

100,000 ppm = %

10%

10,000 ppm = %

1%

1,000 ppm = 0.1%

100 ppm = 0.01%

10 ppm = 0.001%

1 ppm = 0.0001%

1 ppb = 0.0000001%

1 ppt= 0.0000000001%

Concentration
concentration which one is more toxic
ConcentrationWhich one is more toxic?

Product A Product B

Toxic effect when Toxic effect when

exposed to exposed to

9,000 ppm 90 ppm

industrial toxic thresholds
Industrial Toxic Thresholds
  • By Inhalation
    • TLV/TWA - Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted, day to day exposure without adverse health effects (ACGIH)
    • STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit - may exceed TLV/TWA for up to 15 minutes but not to occur more than 4 times per day
    • TLV-C - should never exceed (ACGIH)
    • REL- Recommended Exposure Limit (NIOSH)
industrial toxic thresholds continue
Industrial Toxic Thresholds (continue)
  • By Inhalation
    • PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA)
    • IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (NIOSH)
    • LC50 - Lethal Concentration by inhalation (animal) anything less than 200 mg/kg is considered a poison
industrial toxic thresholds continue1
Industrial Toxic Thresholds (continue)
  • By Ingestion
    • LD50 - Lethal Dose by ingestion or skin absorption (animal) less than 200 mg/kg is considered a poison.
    • Carcinogens - cancer causing (N/A or no exposure)
industrial substances pel twa 8 hrs stel
Industrial SubstancesPEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)
  • Acetone – 750 ppm, 1,000 ppm
  • Unleaded Gasoline – 300 ppm, 500 ppm
  • Carbon Monoxide – 35 ppm, 400 ppm
  • Ammonia – 25 ppm, 35 ppm
  • Hydrogen Sulfide – 9.9 ppm, 15 ppm
  • Hydrogen Cyanide – 10 ppm
  • Chlorine – 1 ppm
  • Hydrazine – 0.1 ppm
chemical substances pel twa 8 hrs stel
Chemical SubstancesPEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)
  • Phosgene – 0.099 ppm
  • 2-chloroethyl sulfide – 0.0005 ppm
  • Lewisite – 0.0004 ppm
  • Tabun – 0.000017 ppm
  • Somin – 0.000004 ppm
  • VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate – 0.0000009 ppm
relative toxicity by inhalation
Relative Toxicity by Inhalation
  • >500 ppm - Toxic
  • 101-500 ppm - Moderately Toxic
  • 1-100 ppm - Highly Toxic
  • <1 ppm - Super Toxic
    • Based upon the lowest value listed for the substance, usually TLV/TWA, STEL or PEL
relative toxicity by ingestion
Relative Toxicity by Ingestion
  • >5 gm/kg - Toxic
  • .5 gm-5gm/kg - Moderately Toxic
  • 50 mg-500 mg/kg - Highly Toxic
  • 1 mg-50mg/kg - Super Toxic
    • Based upon animal LD50
    • gm of product per kg of body weight of target organism
slide38
Dose
  • Concentration
    • percent, PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg
  • Duration of Exposure
    • Acute Vs Chronic, Sensitization
  • Routes
    • Inhalation, Ingestion, Absorption, Injection
dose continued
Dose (continued)
  • Susceptible Target Organs
    • Nervous System, Skeleton & Marrow, Thyroid, Lungs, Heart, Blood, Veins, Liver, Kidneys, Intestines, Skin
  • Health Variables
    • body weight, age, physical condition, gender
  • Dose/Response
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Vapor Pressure - Rate of Evaporation
  • Vapor Density - wt of vapor Vs wt of air
  • Specific Gravity - wt of liquid Vs wt of water
  • Solubility - mixes with water
  • Flash Point - min temp to produce enough vapors to cause ignition but not sustain combustion.
physical properties1
Physical Properties
  • Fire Point - min temp to produce enough vapors to sustain combustion
  • Boiling Point - temp at which liquid changes to gas at it’s maximum rate
  • Flammable Range - the percent of vapor in air that is able to burn
  • Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) - max percentage of vapor in air that will burn
physical properties2
Physical Properties
  • Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) - min percentage of vapor in air that will burn
  • Expansion Ration - ratio of gas volume compared to liquid volume
  • pH - scale used to measure how corrosive
  • Ionizing radiation
    • alpha, beta, gamma, neutron
    • time, distance, shielding, quantity
reference resources
Reference Resources
  • Emergency Response Guidebook
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • Internet
  • Farm Safety Handbook by Rick Kubick
  • MeisterPro Crop Protection Handbook
  • Jane’s Chem-Bio Handbook
  • InterNet Search Tools
the growing threat of the agriculture workplace1

The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace

Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop

Carter Davis

Pacific EMPRINTS Program

hazmat@hawaii.rr.com