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The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace. Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop Carter Davis Pacific EMPRINTS Program. Threats & Problems. Farm Chemicals Industrial Chemicals Biological Terrorism Storage Transportation Proper Use. Chemicals. Hazard Class 1: Explosives.

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The growing threat of the agriculture workplace

The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace

Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop

Carter Davis

Pacific EMPRINTS Program


Threats problems
Threats & Problems

  • Farm Chemicals

  • Industrial Chemicals

  • Biological

  • Terrorism

  • Storage

  • Transportation

  • Proper Use



Hazard class 1 explosives
Hazard Class 1: Explosives

  • Background color:

    • Orange

  • Symbol:

    • Exploding ball


Hazard class 2 gases
Hazard Class 2: Gases

  • Background color:

    • Varies

  • Symbol:

    • Varies

  • Non-flammable gases, flammable gases, poisonous gases

INHALATION

HAZARD


Hazard class 3 flammable liquids
Hazard Class 3: Flammable Liquids

  • Background color:

    • Red

  • Symbol:

    • Flame

  • Flammable & combustible liquids


Hazard class 4 flammable solids
Hazard Class 4: Flammable Solids

  • Background color:

    • Red & white candy striped

    • Blue if reacts with water

  • Flammable solids, spontaneously combustibles, dangerous when wet


Hazard class 5 oxidizers organic peroxides
Hazard Class 5: Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides

  • Background color:

    • Yellow

  • Symbol:

    • Flaming ball


Hazard class 6 poisons etiologic materials
Hazard Class 6:Poisons & Etiologic Materials

  • Background color:

    • White, with black lettering for poisons

INHALATIONHAZARD


Hazard class 7 radioactive materials
Hazard Class 7: Radioactive Materials

  • Background color:

    • White on the bottom, yellow on the top

  • Symbol:

    • Trefoil


Hazard class 8 corrosives
Hazard Class 8: Corrosives

  • Background color:

    • Black on the bottom, white on the top

  • Symbol:

    • Piece of metal and a hand damaged by liquid

  • Acidsand bases


Hazard class 9 miscellaneous
Hazard Class 9: Miscellaneous

  • Hazardous materials not specified in other classes


Facility markings
Facility Markings

  • NFPA 704 Marking System



Farm chemicals
Farm Chemicals

  • Pesticides

    • Insecticides

    • Rodenticides

    • Fungicides

    • Herbicides

  • Fertilizers

  • Animal Medications

  • Cleaning Agents and Solvents


Pesticide safety
Pesticide Safety

  • Reduce risk to exposure and injury

    • Follow labels and MSDS

    • Wear appropriate PPE

    • Use the least hazardous chemicals at the recommended rate and concentration

    • Prepare only enough for immediate use

    • Verify application equipment is working properly and does not leak

    • Don’t eat, drink or smoke while pouring, mixing or applying

    • Work in pairs

    • Clean all equipment thoroughly and without contaminating the environment

    • Wash work clothes separately

    • Wash hands thoroughly after handling


Pesticide safety1
Pesticide Safety

  • Take Additional Precautions

    • Have a first aid kit nearby and include resuscitation mask, eye wash solution, soap

    • Have fresh water available

    • Have all workers take first aid training

    • Check labels and MSDS for proper handling, application,

    • Check with nearby health care facilities for proper stock of antidotes and emergency supplies

    • Stop work and seek medical attention if there is any sign of muscular spasms, blurred vision, excessive saliva, or difficulty breathing


Pesticide storage
Pesticide Storage

  • Store chemicals in a well-ventilated area

  • Store in shed with good lighting and has impervious floor and shelving

  • Use secondary containment

  • Store chemicals in original containers

  • Place an external sign indicating chemical storage

  • Keep incompatible materials separate

  • Keep a spill kit nearby

  • Keep away from food, animal feed, fertilizers and seeds

  • Have access to an emergency shower nearby


Pesticide transport
Pesticide Transport

  • Avoid transporting with food, water, animal feed, fertilizers, seeds and reactive substances

  • Secure in or on vehicle to prevent movement and change in orientation.

  • Keep shipping documents or records of the items you are carrying

  • Carry a spill kit and appropriate personal protective equipment with the vehicle


Pesticide disposal
Pesticide Disposal

  • Take notice of warnings on the labels regarding toxicity to non-target areas

  • Check label/MSDS for advice on disposal

  • Triple rinse empty containers

  • Uncap, puncture and crush all rinsed containers

  • When possible return containers to supplier or manufacture

  • Check with local government authority for information on safe disposal


Fifra label requirements
FIFRA Label Requirements

  • Front Panel

    • Restricted Use Pesticide Statement (if applicable)

    • Product Name, Brand, Trademark

    • Ingredient Statement

    • Keep out of Reach of Children (KOOROC Statement)

    • Signal Word (Caution, Warning, Danger)

    • First Aid (Statement of Practical Treatment)

    • Skull & Crossbones “POISON” for high toxicity

    • Net Contents/Net Weight


Fifra label requirements1
FIFRA Label Requirements

  • Front or Back Panel

    • EPA Registration Number & Establishment Number

    • Company Name and Address

  • Back Panel

    • Precautionary Statements (Hazards to Humans and Animals, Environmental Hazards, Physical and Chemical Hazards)

    • Directions for Use

    • Storage and Disposal

    • Warranty Statement

    • Worker Protection Labeling


C b r n e terrorism
C.B.R.N.E Terrorism

B

R

C

iological

adiological

hemical

N

E

uclear

xplosive


Toxicology
Toxicology

  • What's Toxic? How is it determined?

  • Physical Hazards - Mechanical

    • Fire, Heat, Explosions, Falling Objects

  • Health Hazards - Biological

    • Bodily Contact

    • Immediate and/or Delayed Reactions


Dose

  • Concentration

    • percent,

    • PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg


Concentration

1,000,000 ppm = %

100%

100,000 ppm = %

10%

10,000 ppm = %

1%

1,000 ppm = 0.1%

100 ppm = 0.01%

10 ppm = 0.001%

1 ppm = 0.0001%

1 ppb = 0.0000001%

1 ppt= 0.0000000001%

Concentration


Concentration which one is more toxic
ConcentrationWhich one is more toxic?

Product A Product B

Toxic effect when Toxic effect when

exposed to exposed to

9,000 ppm 90 ppm


Industrial toxic thresholds
Industrial Toxic Thresholds

  • By Inhalation

    • TLV/TWA - Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted, day to day exposure without adverse health effects (ACGIH)

    • STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit - may exceed TLV/TWA for up to 15 minutes but not to occur more than 4 times per day

    • TLV-C - should never exceed (ACGIH)

    • REL- Recommended Exposure Limit (NIOSH)


Industrial toxic thresholds continue
Industrial Toxic Thresholds (continue)

  • By Inhalation

    • PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA)

    • IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (NIOSH)

    • LC50 - Lethal Concentration by inhalation (animal) anything less than 200 mg/kg is considered a poison


Industrial toxic thresholds continue1
Industrial Toxic Thresholds (continue)

  • By Ingestion

    • LD50 - Lethal Dose by ingestion or skin absorption (animal) less than 200 mg/kg is considered a poison.

    • Carcinogens - cancer causing (N/A or no exposure)


Industrial substances pel twa 8 hrs stel
Industrial SubstancesPEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)

  • Acetone – 750 ppm, 1,000 ppm

  • Unleaded Gasoline – 300 ppm, 500 ppm

  • Carbon Monoxide – 35 ppm, 400 ppm

  • Ammonia – 25 ppm, 35 ppm

  • Hydrogen Sulfide – 9.9 ppm, 15 ppm

  • Hydrogen Cyanide – 10 ppm

  • Chlorine – 1 ppm

  • Hydrazine – 0.1 ppm


Chemical substances pel twa 8 hrs stel
Chemical SubstancesPEL TWA (8 hrs & STEL)

  • Phosgene – 0.099 ppm

  • 2-chloroethyl sulfide – 0.0005 ppm

  • Lewisite – 0.0004 ppm

  • Tabun – 0.000017 ppm

  • Somin – 0.000004 ppm

  • VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate – 0.0000009 ppm


Relative toxicity by inhalation
Relative Toxicity by Inhalation

  • >500 ppm - Toxic

  • 101-500 ppm - Moderately Toxic

  • 1-100 ppm - Highly Toxic

  • <1 ppm - Super Toxic

    • Based upon the lowest value listed for the substance, usually TLV/TWA, STEL or PEL


Relative toxicity by ingestion
Relative Toxicity by Ingestion

  • >5 gm/kg - Toxic

  • .5 gm-5gm/kg - Moderately Toxic

  • 50 mg-500 mg/kg - Highly Toxic

  • 1 mg-50mg/kg - Super Toxic

    • Based upon animal LD50

    • gm of product per kg of body weight of target organism


Dose

  • Concentration

    • percent, PPMs, PPBs, Mg/Kg

  • Duration of Exposure

    • Acute Vs Chronic, Sensitization

  • Routes

    • Inhalation, Ingestion, Absorption, Injection


Dose continued
Dose (continued)

  • Susceptible Target Organs

    • Nervous System, Skeleton & Marrow, Thyroid, Lungs, Heart, Blood, Veins, Liver, Kidneys, Intestines, Skin

  • Health Variables

    • body weight, age, physical condition, gender

  • Dose/Response


Physical properties
Physical Properties

  • Vapor Pressure - Rate of Evaporation

  • Vapor Density - wt of vapor Vs wt of air

  • Specific Gravity - wt of liquid Vs wt of water

  • Solubility - mixes with water

  • Flash Point - min temp to produce enough vapors to cause ignition but not sustain combustion.


Physical properties1
Physical Properties

  • Fire Point - min temp to produce enough vapors to sustain combustion

  • Boiling Point - temp at which liquid changes to gas at it’s maximum rate

  • Flammable Range - the percent of vapor in air that is able to burn

  • Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) - max percentage of vapor in air that will burn


Physical properties2
Physical Properties

  • Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) - min percentage of vapor in air that will burn

  • Expansion Ration - ratio of gas volume compared to liquid volume

  • pH - scale used to measure how corrosive

  • Ionizing radiation

    • alpha, beta, gamma, neutron

    • time, distance, shielding, quantity


Reference resources
Reference Resources

  • Emergency Response Guidebook

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

  • Internet

  • Farm Safety Handbook by Rick Kubick

  • MeisterPro Crop Protection Handbook

  • Jane’s Chem-Bio Handbook

  • InterNet Search Tools


The growing threat of the agriculture workplace1

The Growing Threat of the Agriculture Workplace

Pacific Avian Influenza Training Workshop

Carter Davis

Pacific EMPRINTS Program

[email protected].com


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