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  1. Georgia Cataloging Summit Dr. Barbara B. Tillett and Judith A. Kuhagen Policy and Standards Division, Library of Congress Library of Congress RDA Workshop for Georgia Cataloging Summit 9-10 August 2011

  2. FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask Presented by Dr. Barbara B. Tillett Chief, Policy & Standards Division Library of Congress August 9, 2011

  3. FRBR • What is FRBR? • Why do we need it? • Where and how can we use it?

  4. What is FRBR? • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records • IFLA publication 1998 • FRBR Review Group

  5. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) • Entity-relationship model • Entities: Group 1, 2, 3 • Relationships • Attributes • User tasks • Find • Identify • Select • Obtain • National level record elements (mandatory & optional data)

  6. Bibliographic Universe • Books • Serials • Maps, globes, etc. • Manuscripts. • Musical scores • A-V • sound recordings • motion pictures • photographs, slides • Multimedia • “Remote” digital materials • Etc.

  7. What’s a conceptual model? • Abstract depiction of the universe of things being described • The things in that universe (entities) • Identifying characteristics of those entities (attributes) • The relationships among the entities

  8. FRBR’s Entity-Relationship Model Entities Relationships Attributes (data elements) relationship One Entity Another Entity

  9. FRBR’s Entity-Relationship Model Person Work created was created by Shakespeare Hamlet

  10. FRBR Entities Group 1:Products of intellectual & artistic endeavor = bibliographic resources Work Expression Manifestation Item

  11. Work is realized through Expression Intellectual/ artistic content Physical - recording of content is embodied in Manifestation is exemplified by Item

  12. Vocabulary “Book” • Door prop (item) • “publication” • at bookstore • any copy • (manifestation)

  13. Vocabulary “Book” • Who translated? • (expression) • Who wrote? • (work)

  14. Group 1 Work is realized through Expression is embodied in Manifestation recursive is exemplified by one Item many

  15. Work ID Title Date etc. Expression ID Form Date Language etc. Manifestation ID Title Statement of responsibility Edition Imprint (place, publisher, date) Form/extent of carrier Terms of availability Mode of access etc. Item ID Provenance Location etc. Elements to Describe Resources

  16. Examples • Leatherbound autographed copy in Rare Books Collection? • Digitized version of the Oxford University Press text published in 2008? • French translation? • London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance? • Hamlet? Item Manifestation Expression Expression Work

  17. Family of Works Equivalent Descriptive Derivative Free Translation Review Edition Casebook Microform Reproduction Summary Abstract Dramatization Simultaneous “Publication” Abridged Edition Criticism Digest Novelization Screenplay Copy Libretto Evaluation Illustrated Edition Revision Change of Genre Exact Reproduction Parody Annotated Edition Translation Expurgated Edition Imitation Same Style or Thematic Content Variations or Versions Facsimile Arrangement Commentary Slight Modification Reprint Adaptation Original Work -Same Expression Same Work – New Expression New Work Cataloging Rules Cut-Off Point

  18. Relationships Work Expression • Inherent among the Group 1 entities • Content relationships among works/expressions • Structural Manifestation Item Whole-Part Sequential Derivative Accompanying

  19. FRBR Entities Group 2: Those responsible for the intellectual & artistic content = Parties Person Corporate body Family

  20. Group 2 Person Family Corporate Body Work Expression Manifestation Item is owned by is produced by is realized by is created by many

  21. Relationship vs. Element Created by Work Person Creates Hamlet Shakespeare

  22. Subject Relationship Created by Work Person Creates has subject is subject of Concept/Topic

  23. FRBR Entities Group 3:Subjects of works Groups1&2plus Concept Object Event Place Subject relationship

  24. Group 3 Work Work Expression has as subject Manifestation Item Person Family has as subject Corporate Body Concept Object has as subject Event Place many

  25. Why do we need FRBR? • Improve the user experience in locating information • Guide systems designs for the future • Guide rule makers • Cut costs for the description and access to resources in our libraries • Position information providers to better operate in the Internet environment and beyond

  26. Applications of the Conceptual Model FRBR is conceptual model No application is prescribed Opportunities for the future in new systems designs Natl. Lib. Australia Variations3, etc. Keep user foremost in mind

  27. Collocation Better organization to catalog More options to display Identifying elements Pathways FRBR Benefits ☑ Simplify cataloging enabling links and re-use of identifying elements

  28. Collocation Shakespeare Hamlet Romeo and Juliet English French German Swedish Stockholm 2008 Library of Congress Copy 1 Green leather binding • Objectives of a catalog: display • All the works associated with aperson, etc. • All the expressions of the same work • All the manifestations of the same expression • All items/copies of the same manifestation

  29. Pathways to Related Works Shakespeare Stoppard Hamlet Derivative works Romeo and Juliet Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead English French Text Movies … German Subject Swedish Stockholm 2008 Library of Congress Copy 1 Green leather binding

  30. Collocation by Works • Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. • All’s well that ends well • As you like it • Hamlet • Macbeth • Midsummer night’s dream • …

  31. Collocation by Family of Works and Expressions • Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.Hamlet. • Texts • Motion Pictures • Sound Recordings

  32. Collocation by Expressions • Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.Hamlet. • Texts – Danish • Texts – Dutch • Texts – English • Texts – French • Texts – Spanish • Motion Pictures – English • Sound Recordings - English

  33. Collocation of Manifestations • Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.Hamlet. • Motion pictures – English • 1964 Director, Bill Collegan • 1990 Director, Kevin Kline, Kirk Browning • 1990 Director, Franco Zeffirelli • 1992 Director, Maria Muat • 1996Director, Kenneth Branagh • 2000Director, Campbell Scott, Eric Simonson

  34. FRBR Display - Serial • Atlantic monthly • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1993) • Atlantic (Boston, Mass. : 1981) • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1971) • Atlantic (Boston, Mass. : 1932) • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1857)

  35. FRBR Display - Serial • Atlantic monthly • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1993) • Online • Paper • Microfilm • Atlantic (Boston, Mass. : 1981) • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1971) • Atlantic (Boston, Mass. : 1932) • Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1857)

  36. Circulation: Place holds at “Work” or “Expression” level rather than only at manifestation level (VTLS and OCLC demonstrate this) FRBR Benefits Hamlet English

  37. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) • Entity-relationship model • Entities: Group 1, 2, 3 • Relationships • Attributes (Elements) • User tasks • Find • Identify • Select • Obtain • National level record elements (mandatory & optional data)

  38. FRBR–Based Systems Person Concept Work Person Expression Manifestation Manifestation Item Corporatebody Item Item