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Ch6 Sec1. Forces in Earth’s Crust. Key Concepts. How does stress in the crust change Earth’s surface? Where are faults usually found, and why do they form? What land features result from the forces of plate movment ?. Key Terms. Stress Tension Compression Shearing Normal fault

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ch6 sec1

Ch6 Sec1

Forces in Earth’s Crust

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • How does stress in the crust change Earth’s surface?
  • Where are faults usually found, and why do they form?
  • What land features result from the forces of plate movment?
key terms
Key Terms
  • Stress
  • Tension
  • Compression
  • Shearing
  • Normal fault
  • Hanging wall
  • Footwall
  • Reverse fault
  • Strike-slip fault
  • Anticline
  • Syncline
  • Plateau
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  • Types of Stress
    • Stress: a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
    • Tension: pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
    • Compression: squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
    • Shearing: stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions
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  • Kinds of Faults
    • Most faults occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks. There are three main types of faults.
      • Normal faults: tension in the Earth’ crust pulls rock apart
        • Hanging wall: the block of rock that lies above
        • Footwall: the block of rock that lies below
      • Reverse faults: same structure as a normal fault but the blocks move in the opposite direction
      • Strike-slip fault: the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways
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  • Changing Earth’s Surface
    • Over millions of years, the forces of plate movement can change a flat plain into landforms such as anticlines and synclines, folded mountains, fault-block mountains, and plateaus
    • Anticlines: a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
    • Syncline: a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley
    • Plateaus: is a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level