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The Nervous System. Physiology Unit CA Biology Standard 9. Standard 9a : Students know how the complimentary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.

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the nervous system

The Nervous System

Physiology Unit

CA Biology Standard 9

Standard 9a: Students know how the complimentary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
  • Think about it…..How do the following body systems act together to maintain homeostasis?

Digestive System, Respiratory System,

Circulatory System

standard 9a
Standard 9a
  • Digestive System
    • Breaks down food and delivers glucose to the circulatory system.
  • Respiratory System
    • Takes in Oxygen molecules through the lungs and delivers to the circulatory system.
    • Receives CO2 waste from the circulatory system and removes from the body through the lungs.
  • Circulatory System
    • Carries glucose and oxygen to cells so they can use them during cellular respiration to make ATP
    • Takes waste products like CO2 to the appropriate place for removal from the body.
what is the nervous system
What is the Nervous System?
  • Recognizes and coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environment.
  • Parts of the System:
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
    • Peripheral Nerves
      • A.K.A. Neurons or Nerve Cells
divisions of the nervous system
Divisions of the Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • The control center of the body
    • Relays messages, processes information, and analyzes information
    • Consists of the brain and the spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Lies outside of the CNS
    • Consists of all nerves and associated cells that are NOT included in the spinal cord
    • Sensory Division: Transmits impulses from sense organs to the CNS
    • Motor Division: Transmits impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands
  • Cells that transmit nerve responses.
  • 3 Main Types
    • Sensory Neurons: Receive signals from the external environment.
    • Interneurons: Carry messages to other neurons.
    • Motor Neurons: Tell muscles to move in response to external signal.
the brain
The Brain
  • Contains about 100 billion neurons
  • Weighs about 1.4 kg
  • Cerebrum
    • Voluntary, conscious activities
  • Cerebellum
    • Coordinates activity so muscles can move efficiently
  • Brain Stem
    • Connects the brain to the spinal cord
    • Controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing & swallowing
  • Hypothalamus
    • Recognition of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and temperature.
    • Coordinates nervous & endocrine systems
  • Grey Matter
    • Mostly neuron cell bodies
  • White Matter
    • Mostly neuron axons
spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • Main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body
  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord connecting the brain to all parts of the body
  • Reflexes are processed directly in the spinal cord
standard 9b
Standard 9b
  • Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body’s interaction with the environment.
what is a reflex
What is a Reflex?
  • Reflex: A quick, automatic response to a stimulus. Pathway occurs along the Central Nervous System (CNS).
  • Stimulus: Environmental item that is sensed by an individual.
    • Example: temperature, pressure, smells, tastes, light and sounds
  • Individuals become aware of the environment through the sense organs and other receptors
  • The body responds to stimuli through reflex arcs.
the reflex arc
  • Stimuli is sensed by receptors in skin
  • Message detected by sensory neurons
  • Message sent to interneurons in the spinal cord
  • Motor neurons then tell the muscle to move and respond to the stimuli
  • The muscle is referred to as an effector