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FAscism. AP World History. Fascism – Democracy Denied. World War I causes Europeans to distrust democracy Communism Fascism Communism and fascism struggle for control over many European countries European countries, especially Germany, are desperate for relief of many ills. . Fascism .

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Fascism

FAscism

AP World History


Fascism democracy denied
Fascism – Democracy Denied

  • World War I causes Europeans to distrust democracy

    • Communism

    • Fascism

    • Communism and fascism struggle for control over many European countries

  • European countries, especially Germany, are desperate for relief of many ills.


Fascism1
Fascism

  • Fascism – “State above All”

    • Intensely nationalistic, conservative, reactionary

    • Sought to revitalize their countries through any means necessary

      • Encouraged violence against enemies

    • Relied on charismatic leaders, oppression, propoganda,and theatrics to lead

    • Condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, democracy and especially communism

      • All these isms “divided and weakened nations”


Fascism2
Fascism

  • Fascist parties existed throughout Europe but most powerful in Spain, Italy, and especially Germany


Fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy

  • Social order threatened (conservative landlords, factory working class, veterans, communists, socialists, oh my!)

  • Benito Mussolini : “Il Duce”

    • Charismatic – promised order, removal of communists

    • Private army (Black Shirts)

    • Oppression

    • violence

    • “the trains run on time”


Fascism in italy1
Fascism in Italy

  • State control, state power

    • Democracy suspended

      • Opponents “went away” – deported, imprisoned, executed

      • Political parties, unions, peasant groups disbanded

    • Economically – corporate state – make what state needs

    • Culturally looked back to a “pure”, traditional Italian life

      • Catholic culture

      • Women as domestic beings, purpose to bear more children for state


Fascism in germany the nazis
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis

  • The Rise of Hitler and the National Socialists (Nazis)

    • Weimar Republic a disaster, economy terrible

    • Elites attacked democratic politicians and blamed them for Germany’s problems

    • Workers facing massive unemployment

      • Elite and middle class conservatives turn toward fascism

      • Urban workers turn toward communism and socialism

  • Communists vs. Fascists


Fascism in germany the nazis1
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis

  • Nazi Party – intensely nationalistic –

    • Germany was not only great, but her people racially superior

    • Claimed Germany’s problems were the fault of enemies within (Jews, among others) and enemies without (Britain, France, US)

      • Treaty of Versailles

    • Used depression to garner support


Fascism in germany the nazis2
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis

  • Hitler comes to power democratically

  • Policies did bring Germany out of depression

    • Keynesian infrastructure projects

    • Rearmament

    • Unemployment in 1932 – 6.2 million

      1936 - <500,000


Fascism in germany the nazis3
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis

  • Hitler, like Mussolini

    • Brown and Black Shirts

    • Charismatic

    • Invoked traditional imagery and

      values

  • Hitler, unlike Mussolini

    • Intensely anti-Semitic

      • Jews as urban, capitalist, and

        foreign- all things good Germans were not


Fascism in germany the nazis4
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis

  • Hitler achieved power democratically

    • Once elected, claimed dictatorial power “Der Fuhrer”

    • Scientific racism

    • Increasingly restricted Jewish life

      • Nuremberg Laws (1935)

      • Kristallnacht (1938)

    • German race, folk culture celebrated through theatrical rallies, etc


Fascism in japan
Fascism in Japan

  • Like Italy and Germany

    • Limited democratic experience

    • Struggled with unionization, women’s rights, in 1920s

      • Rice Riot 1918

      • Conflict between communism and right wing

    • Great Depression

      • Massive unemployment (urban)

      • Japanese doubt parliamentary democracy


Fascism in japan1
Fascism in Japan

  • Like Italy and Germany

    • Move to right wing

      • Radical Nationalism or Revolutionary Right

      • Appealed to younger army officers

      • Nationalistic, anti democracy, dedicated to foreign expansion

    • Turned to large scale public works to bring Japan out of depression

    • Interested in empire building


Fascism in japan2
Fascism in Japan

  • Unlike Italy and Germany

    • No major fascist party emerged

    • No charismatic leader like Mussolini or Hitler

  • Japanese government institutions and traditional beliefs were strong enough to prevent fascist takeover


Fascism in japan3
Fascism in Japan

  • Military played a dominant role in Japan

    • Focus on military might (martial arts in school)

    • deep, long-lasting respect for military

  • But even military did not govern alone


Fascism in japan4
Fascism in Japan

  • Did not reach the level of totalitarianism of Germany or Italy

    • Political prisoners were few, no executions or deportations

  • Racial purity was directed against foreigners, not internal minority