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Arthur of Britain - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Arthur of Britain
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  1. Arthur of Britain

  2. Overview • Eras of British History • Stone Age – Bronze Age • Celtic conquest • Roman conquest • Anglo-Saxon invasion & origin of England • Retreat of Roman-Britains • The Emergence and Evolution of Arthurian Texts • Geoffrey of Monmouth (12th century) • Chrétien de Troyes’ romances. Introduces Lancelot, Perceval, Camelot, and the grail, not the “Holy Grail.” (12th century) • Sir Thomas Malory (15th century) • Alfred, Lord Tennyson (19th century) / Pre-Raphaelite Art • Mary Stewart, Rosemary Sutcliff, Marian Zimmer Bradley (20th century)

  3. Stone Age - Bronze Age Britain 4700 – 2000 BCE 2200 – 700 BCE

  4. The Celts500 BCE - 400 CE 1850 bronze sculpture by Thomas Thornycroft commerating Boudicca (aka Boadicea), queen of the British Iceni, who led an unsuccessful revolt against the Romans in AD 60-61.

  5. Celtic Hill forts Maiden Castle, Dorset Shropshire Hill Fort Maiden Castle, Dorset

  6. Celtic Religion • Druidism (Merlin) • Worship out-of-doors • Magic and supernatural • Gaelic Fertility festivals: Beltane & Samhain Merlin and Nimue by Gustav Dore Tennyson’s Idylls of the King

  7. Celtic Iron Age Celtic sword, La Téne • Introduction of iron weapons • Science of metalurgy  wizardry Detail from the Sigurd Portal, University of Oslo

  8. Roman Britain55 BCE; 43 – 410 CE • Advanced civilization – high standard of living • Pax romana Caesar Exhorts Ridpath

  9. Hadrian’s Wall

  10. Artorius • Dux bellorum • Sarmatian cavalry of 6th Legion • Lucius Artorius Castus Antoine Fuqua’s King Arthur, 2004

  11. Saxon invasions 400 – 600 CE • Years of crisis • Scotti (Irish), Picts, Saxons • Collapse of civilization • Time for a hero From David Day’s King Arthur, 1999

  12. Retreat of the Red Dragon people Emblem of Celtic Britons From David Day’s King Arthur, 1999

  13. Dragon-Slayers: St. George and Beowulf • Anglo-Saxon view • English legends Rogier van der Weyden, Saint George and the Dragon, 1432-1435 Drawing by Laszlo Matulay in By His Own Might: The Battles of Beowulf, by Dorothy Hosford

  14. Dark Age Britain Blackout in historical record • Gildas (c. 540) • Bede (731) • Nennius (c. 800)

  15. Oral Tradition  written Texts • Breton (Less Britain, Brittany, Armorica) emigres • Irish, Cornish, and Welsh bards, French jongleurs • 12th century written texts: • Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of Britain • Mabinogion • Chrétien de Troyes’s Knight of the Cart, etc. • Marie de France’s lais

  16. Geoffrey of Monmouth:History of the Kings of Britain (1136) • Uther, Ygerna, Merlin, Guenevere (Ganhumara), Mordred, Gawain, Bedwyr, Kay • Tintagel • Red & White Dragons • Avalon • Stonehenge

  17. Chrétien de Troyes’ romances • Court of Countess Marie de Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1160-1181) • Courtly Love • Introduces Lancelot, Perceval, Camelot, and the grail, not the “Holy Grail.” (12th century) Meetingonthe Turret Stairs (1864) by Frederick William Burton

  18. Sir Thomas Malory:Le Morte Darthur (1485) • Malory, the Knight Prisoner • Compilation of French and English sources: • The hoole booke of kyng Arthur & of his noble knyghtes of the rounde table • Practical chivalry • Moral order JohnMulcasterCarrick’sLa Mort d'Arthur(1862)

  19. Alfred, Lord Tennyson:Idylls of the King (1859) • Inspiration for Pre-Raphaelite art • “The Lady of Shalott” Sir Galahad & the Nun by Julia Margaret Cameron The Lady of Shalott by John Waterhouse

  20. T. H. White:The Once and Future King (1958) • Comedy with serious political implications in post-WWII era • Basis for Disney’s The Sword in the Stone and Lerner and Loewe’s Camelot

  21. Contemporary Novels • Sword at Sunset(1963) by Rosemary Sutcliff • The Crystal Cave, The Hollow Hills, The Last Enchantment (1979), and The Wicked Day (1983) by Mary Stewart • The Mists of Avalon(1982) by Marion Zimmer Bradley