Aerodrome Training Module 5 Part 2. Electronic Navigation Aids. Standards & Service Levels. Standards – Operated by a CAR Part 171 (NZ) organisation in accordance with Annex 10
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Aerodrome Training Module 5 Part 2 Electronic Navigation Aids
Standards & Service Levels • Standards – Operated by a CAR Part 171 (NZ) organisation in accordance with Annex 10 • Service Levels – ICAO Regional Air Navigation Plan specifies levels of service in FASID tables. No specific requirements for service levels for domestic aviation. Commercial arrangement between airlines and Airways. • Transition – Currently phasing out ground based navigation aids for space based. Programme is significantly delayed and the US are now using the term “phase down” rather than “phase out”.
Non-directional Beacon • NDB- Non-Directional Beacon Ground based subsystem Transmitting a simple radio signal on the M/F broadcast band. Signal follows curvature of earth so can be used at greater distances than line of sight navaids • ADF- Aircraft subsystem consisting of radio receiver and directional indicator showing relative bearing to NDB. When read in conjunction with compass a magnetic bearing can be established • Limitations: Outdate system subject to number of errors – Night, Terrain, Electrical, Coastline, Bank. High pilot work load (not able to be coupled to auto-pilot)
VOR VHF Omni-directional Range Ground subsystem consists of a transmitter Broadcasting coded navigation signal on VHF 108-117.95 MHz. 2 methods of transmitting Doppler and Conventional. Navigation signal aligned to magnetic north. Limited to line of sight.
Distance Measuring Equipment Aircraft DME system interrogates ground station and times delay in reply which it displays as a slant distance in NM to the station. Ground station normally collocated with VOR or ILS
Instrument Landing System Consists of two major components Localizer providing azimuth guidance with respect to the runway centreline. Localizer array installed on up wind end of Runway and transmits signal in VHF band 108 – 111.95 MHz Glide-slope providing vertical flight path guidance normally 3° with 50ft threshold Crossing height. Glide-slope antenna Installed abeam touchdown zone transmits Signal in UHF band 329-335MHz. Ranging information is also provided By DME or Marker beacons
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System Currently utilises the US DOD GPS Constellation. The Russian GLONASS is Also able to be used and the European Plan to provide the Galileo System. Unaugmented GNSS able to provide an Equivalent level of accuracy as VOR/DME
GNSS Augmentation GBAS Ground based augmentation system also called (FAA) as LAAS (localarea augmentation system). Provides a local differential correction to enhance the accuracy via VHF data link. Planned to Provide Cat 1 service 2010 and Cat 3 2013??? SBAS Spaced based augmentation system. Provides a Wide differential correction signal via Geostationary satellite. Able to Provide close to cat 1 requirements. FAA WAAS, European EGNOS, Japanese MSAS ABAS Aircraft based augmentation System. Integrated with INS Enables down to RNP 0.1 with BARO/VNAV
Practical Exercises Part 1 and 2 • Calculate the PAPI MEHT settings Minimum and desired for a runway with critical aircraft being a Boeing 777-200? • What additional lighting is required to upgrade a Precision category 1 lighting system to category 2 & 3? • Runway mandatory signage is coloured yellow – True or False? • The standby power requirement for a take-off runway with RVR down to 200m is – (a) 2 secs, (b) 6 secs, (c) 15 secs