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Aerodrome Training Course – Module 7. Inspection, Maintenance, Works, Management, Safety and Reporting. Learning Outcome. Participants will gain an overview of the following requirements and issues concerning: Aerodrome inspections

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aerodrome training course module 7

Aerodrome Training Course – Module 7

Inspection, Maintenance, Works, Management, Safety and Reporting

learning outcome
Learning Outcome

Participants will gain an overview of the following requirements and issues concerning:

  • Aerodrome inspections
  • Conducting works and maintenance when the airport is still operational
  • Safety management and quality assurance systems and procedures
  • CAA incident and accident reporting

With access to reference documents they will be able to specify:

  • detailed zones and work activities permitted on the runway strip
  • Steps for conducting safety assessment
  • Reporting requirements of aerodrome incidents to CAA
aerodrome inspections
Aerodrome Inspections
  • Inspection Programme – primary responsibility of Aerodrome certificate holder to ensure the correct functioning or condition of following:
  • Pavement areas
  • Safety and obstacle free areas
  • Markings and signs
  • Aircraft loading/unloading and refuelling
  • Navigation aids
  • Public protection
  • Wildlife and airside fencing
  • Responsibility 3rd Parties – Other organisations such as air navigation service providers may own navigation aids on airside. Ultimate responsibility for visual aids (lighting and marking) rests with the airport certificate holder.
aerodrome inspections1
Aerodrome Inspections
  • Inspection Frequency – following considerations: number of aircraft movements, types of aircraft and operation (VFR/IFR), meteorological conditions, day or night, aerodrome environment, complexity and size of aerodrome, and analysis of results/trends of inspections.
  • Recording and Reporting – essential good records are kept and prompt reporting to ATC/NOTAM for operational impact and maintenance for fault rectification.
  • Competency/Equipment of Inspector – important that inspector understands function and operational impact of items being inspected and supported by detailed procedures (SOP) and necessary equipment and support (radio equipped vehicles, management/technical escalation)
aerodrome maintenance
Aerodrome Maintenance
  • Fault Rectification – reported by inspection programme, pilots, ATC or routine maintenance inspections. Urgency dependent on operational impact and allowable outages etc
  • Preventative – routine maintenance to minimise faults and ensure safety (availability, continuity and integrity) of service or facility.
  • Projects – CAPEX major works to enhance and upgrade current facilities
  • Access – close proximity to and on runway difficult
  • Records – essential to keep good records to enable trend analysis etc
runway work zones
Runway Work Zones

NOTAM and ATS advice to pilots, consideration meteorological conditions

Zone 1 Calibration personnel equipment only when essential other personnel to edge zone 2 for turbojet and edge zone 1 for turboprop light GA aircraft

Zone 2 all equipment personnel clear for turbojet, okay for other

Zone 3 consideration navaid protection zones for personnel/equipment/vehicles and LVO

method of works plan
Method of Works Plan
  • For all major works a Method Off Works Plan (MWOP) is required:
  • Management – early appointment of project manager to manage the pre works planning
  • Consultation - airline and other operators, ATS, works contractor, Airways technical for impact on their facilities,
  • CAA - does the work require specific regulatory approval –
  • structures mast penetrating OLS require notification
  • Is work covered by existing AOC/Exposition
  • AIS – Use AIP Supplement with use of NOTAM only for notifying start dates. Consider end of project permanent changes required to AIP/Aeronautical charts.
mowp safety
MOWP - Safety
  • Operational Safety – Fully compliant Physical characteristics, OLS, visual navaids, denoting obstacles and facilities commensurate with:
  • The characteristics of the aircraft using the airport
  • The lowest MET minima
  • The ambient light conditions
  • Any changes to OP Data clearly published including use of diagrams
  • Personnel Safety – Fully compliant with all OSH requirements
  • Safety Plan – Overall safety plan reflecting above as part of the Project signoff.
mowp contents
MOWP - Contents
  • Title Page – date of issue, location and short description eg Wellington Runway overlay
  • Works Information – Outline full scope and state all facilities that are affected, dates and duration of each stage
  • Restrictions to aircraft OPS/AIS – outline operational restrictions including diagrams and detail AIP SUP and NOTAM issued or to be issued during the various stages, impact adverse weather.
  • Restrictions to contractors/works – detail restrictions and requirements for restoring normal operations
  • Safety Plan – detailed safety plan including operational and personnel OSH
  • Administration - provide the name of the project manager, works safety officers and contact details
  • Authority – All works will be carried out in accordance with the MWOP
  • Drawings – For each stage of the works
  • Distribution List – Airport, contractor, consultants, ATS
quality management systems nz example
Quality Management Systems – NZ Example
  • Swedavia-McGregor Report 1988 recommended fundamental change to the civil aviation system. CAA up to then provided external QA function through process of constant inspection of the end product and intervention. Change to responsibility be placed on certificated organisations to have QMS with appropriate internal QA procedures.
  • More effective for CAA to examine systems that control the activities and ensure appropriate procedures in place to address and achieve the required safety standard.
  • QMS is the structure, responsibilities, processes and procedures of an organisation that promotes and establishes an environment and culture of continuing improvement that will enhance safety.
quality assurance nz experience
Quality Assurance NZ Experience
  • Internal Quality Assurance procedures required to:
  • Identify, Document and Correct Instances of non-conformance or non-compliance
  • 139.75 Aerodrome internal quality assurance
  • (a) Each applicant for the grant of an aerodrome operating certificate shall establish internal quality assurance procedures to ensure compliance with, and the adequacy of, the procedures, plans, systems and programmes, required by Subparts B, C, and D.
  • (b) The senior person who has the responsibility for internal quality assurance shall have direct access to the Chief Executive on matters affecting the safety of aircraft operations and the performance of the aerodrome services and facilities.
safety management systems
Safety Management Systems

ICAO Annex 14:

  • 1.5.3 States shall require, as part of their safety programme, that a certified aerodrome operator implements a safety management system acceptable to the State that, as a minimum:

a) identifies safety hazards;

b) ensures that remedial action necessary to maintain an acceptable level of safety is implemented;

c) provides for continuous monitoring and regular assessment of the safety level achieved; and

d) aims to make continuous improvement to the overall level of safety.

  • 1.5.4 A safety management system shall clearly define lines of safety accountability throughout a certified aerodrome operator, including a direct accountability for safety on the part of senior management.
safety management systems1
Safety Management Systems
  • Safety is the state in which the risk to harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management.
  • A Safety Management System is an organised approach to managing safety, including the necessary organisational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.
  • Concept of Risk is two-dimensional involving both likelihood of occurrence of a hazard and the severity of its potential consequences.
acceptable level of safety
Acceptable Level of Safety
  • Expressed by 2 measures/metrics – safety performance indicators and safety performance targets and implemented through various safety requirements
  • Safety performance indicators – measure of safety performance of an organisation. Must be easy to measure and linked to States (CAA) Safety programme.
  • Safety performance targets – determined by considering what is desirable and realistic. Should be measurable and acceptable to stakeholders and consistent with States safety programme.
  • Safety requirements – to achieve safety performance indicators and targets.
  • Example – no more than one runway incursion per 40,000 aircraft movements (safety indicator); with a 40% reduction in a 12 month period (safety target); the establishment of low visibility taxi procedures (safety requirement).

As Low As Reasonably

Practicable. Any further

risk is either impracticable

or grossly outweighed by

the cost.

steps for implementing sms
Steps for Implementing SMS
  • Step 1: Planning – review organisation look for existing strengths and capabilities, safety cultural, draft safety indicators, targets and strategy, implementation plan, budget
  • Step 2: Senior Management’s Commitment – issuing safety policy and safety objectives
  • Step 3: Organisation – appointing safety manager, committees, structures, training and competency
  • Step 4: Hazard Identification – implementation of reactive and proactive identification including: safety assessments, trend monitoring, incident reporting, safety surveys
  • Step 5: Risk Management – hazard identification, risk assessment, risk mitigation
steps for implementing sms1
Steps for Implementing SMS
  • Step 6: Investigation Capability – internal capability lessons learnt understanding not just the what but the how.
  • Step 7: Safety Analysis Capability – for trend analysis, occurrence investigation, hazard identification, risk assessment and mitigation, monitoring of safety performance.
  • Step 8: Safety Training and Promotion – keeping staff informed through training and literature.
  • Step 9: Safety and Information Management – employ modern electronic system to provide close to real time status of all risk, minimise paper
  • Step 10: Safety Oversight and Performance Monitoring – programme of inspections, audits and safety reviews
aeronautical study safety case
Aeronautical Study/ Safety case
  • Methodology in ICAO Safety Management Manual Document 9859 2nd Edition 2009, chapter 5. The process involves the following steps and documentation as detailed below.
  • Scenario
  • System Description
  • Hazard Identification Process
  • Safety Risk Assessment Process
  • Safety Risk Mitigation/Control Process
  • Individual Responsibilities for Implementing Measures
  • Hazard Identification and Safety Management Log
aeronautical study example
Aeronautical Study - Example
  • Scenario - The close proximity of the planned extension of the wind turbine farm to X International Airport and that the proposed turbines will infringe the inner horizontal and conical OLS requires the CAA to conduct an aeronautical study as detailed in CA Rules. The aeronautical study is to identify any risks to airport and aircraft operations and to recommend if required the necessary control measures and mitigations to ensure safe and regulatory compliant operations.
  • System Description X International Airport is a designated international airport for the State. The airport operator is X. X is a government owned company operating all the airports in the State and the sole provider of air traffic and air navigation services.

The airport is operational 24 hours per day, seven days per week (H24), and has direct schedule international flights to/from Europe, Africa and North America. It also has frequent domestic flights to the other airports in the state. The airport is capable of handling aircraft up to ICAO Annex 14 Code 4D with the current largest aircraft regularly operating at the airport being the Boeing 757-200.

accident incident reporting
Accident/Incident Reporting

Accident means an occurrence that is associated with the operation of an

aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft

with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have

disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest,

being an occurrence in which—

(1) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of—

(i) being in the aircraft; or

(ii) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or

(iii) direct exposure to jet blast—

(2) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that—

(i) adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or

flight characteristics of the aircraft; and

(ii) would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component— except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin;

  • Incident means any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and affects or could affect the safety of operation:
  • Aircraft incident means any incident, not otherwise classified, associated with the operation of an aircraft:
  • Aerodrome incident means an incident involving an aircraft operation and—

an obstruction either on the aerodrome operational area or protruding into the aerodrome obstacle limitation surfaces; or

(2) a defective visual aid; or

(3) a defective surface of a manoeuvring area; or

(4) any other defective aerodrome facility:

  • Airspace incident means an incident involving deviation from, or shortcomings of, the procedures or rules for—

(1) avoiding a collision between aircraft; or

(2) avoiding a collision between aircraft and other obstacles when an aircraft is being provided with an Air Traffic Service:

  • Bird incident means an incident where—

(1) there is a collision between an aircraft and one or more birds; or

(2) when one or more birds pass sufficiently close to an aircraft in flight to cause alarm to the pilot:

caa notification nz experience
CAA Notification – NZ Experience

12.55 Notification of incident

A holder of a certificate issued in accordance with the following Parts must notify the Authority as soon as practicable of any associated incident if the certificate holder is involved in the incident and the incident is a serious incident or is an immediate hazard to the safety of an aircraft operation:

(6) Part 139 ─ aerodrome incident:

(d) The notification of an incident required by paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) must be conveyed by a means acceptable to the Authority and contain, where ascertainable, information in accordance with the following:

(g) Aerodrome incident – The following information is required for notification of an aerodrome incident under rule 12.55(d)(7):

(1) date and time of the incident:

(2) brief description of events:

(3) name of the aerodrome:

(4) description and the location of the reported defect or obstruction:

(5) name, organisation, and contact details of the person notifying the incident.

preservation accident scene
Preservation Accident Scene

No person may have access to, interfere with or remove except

  • To remove persons and livestock
  • Prevent further damage to aircraft
  • Prevent obstruction to public or air navigation where no practicable alternative is available
practical exercise
Practical Exercise
  • What aspects need to be considered in preparing a method of works plan?
  • What restrictions are there in notifying airport works by using solely the NOTAM service?
  • Aeronautical Study – Course team discussions on handout and presentation to course