Unit13. Cultural information. Cultural information. Cultural information 1. 1. Quote W. M. Thackeray: Dare and the world always yields. If it beats you sometimes, dare it again and again and it will succumb. Cultural information. 2. Depression. Cultural information 2.
Cultural information Cultural information Cultural information1 1. Quote W. M. Thackeray: Dare and the world always yields. If it beats you sometimes, dare it again and again and it will succumb.
Cultural information 2. Depression Cultural information2 Some people say that depression feels like a black curtain of despair coming down over their lives. Many people feel like they have no energy and can’t concentrate. Others feel irritable all the time for no apparent reason. Most people who have gone through one episode of depression will, sooner or later, have another one. The symptoms vary from person to person, but if you feel “down” for more than two weeks, and these feelings are interfering with your daily life, you may be clinically depressed.
Cultural information The common symptoms including: Cultural information3 ＊poor concentration and memory ＊withdrawal from social situations and activities ＊an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed ＊preoccupied with thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, helplessness, self-hatred, etc. ＊thoughts of death or suicide, etc. Learning to recognize these early triggers or symptoms and working with your doctor will help to keep the depression from worsening. There are many forms of
Cultural information treatment that can help you cope with depression, including medications, psychotherapy or counseling. Cultural information4
Structural analysis Main idea Main idea Global Reading-Main idea1 What is the story narrated in the text about? This narrative essay narrates and describes an unusual and unforgettable phase of the writer’s life, during which she experienced , voluntarily received , the illness in the end, and from the experiences associated with her suffering. deep depression __________________ clinical treatment conquered ____________________ ____________ benefited a great deal _________________________
Structural analysis Main idea Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 1. How are the events of the essay arranged? The narration mostly follows a chronological order, but a few flashbacks are inserted in Paragraph 3 and 6.
Structural analysis Main idea 2. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Structural analysis 2 It provides the background of the story, telling us about the writer and her family and her problem. The writer related her experiences with deep depression, including her attitude and reactions to it, focusing on her positive attitude and how she got better and finally recovered.
Structural analysis Main idea Structural analysis 3 It describes the writer’s mood and feeling on a moon-lit, starry night, and stresses that her deep depression had been worth it, for suffering had painted color into her life, and that she was thankful.
Detailed reading The Light of Depression Detailed reading1 Alice Johnson Twice, I have seen my father cry. The first time, I was 12, and my sister, Jenny, was 14. She was diagnosed with juvenile diabetes and needed further testing. When we arrived at the hospital, my dad walked around to her side of the car, gathered her into his arms and held her. None of us understood what was happening to my sister’s body, but when I heard my strong dad’s voice break with tears, I knew we were on a new and unexpected path. 1
Detailed reading Detailed reading2 Almost 10 years later, in the fall following my college graduation, I was the one my father gathered into his arms. At 22, I was diagnosed with clinical depression and voluntarily admitted to a psychiatric hospital. At a time in my life when the world was supposed to be opening up to me, I found myselfretreating. Apathetic, uncaring, tired, and with no particular vision for any future, I drifted into a world without hope. My family and I knew I needed help. 2
Detailed reading Detailed reading3 As a child, I had great passion for life. The simplest of pleasures brought unexplainable joy. I seldom demonstrated a melancholic personality. In fact, my parents learned that birthdays, Christmas and any reason for celebration would find me in excitement. I loved life, and I loved being alive. When depression struck, I was dropped into a world where wearing my own skin was foreign and ill-fitting. 3
Detailed reading Detailed reading4 My mom says that one of the hardest days of her life was the day I checked into the hospital. My personal belongings were rummaged through, and I headed down the long hallway to doctors and a treatment team that became my “family” for the next month. Her drive home, leaving me behind, was heartbreaking. She was left to wonder and guess at why her daughter was in so much pain and why she couldn’t fix it this time. 4
Detailed reading I was numb, trying to see through a haze that hadsettled upon what once was vivid and bright. All color had seeped from a life that used to hold such joy. Some people didn’t understand my depression. They regarded it as a bad case of the Sunday evening blues believing that if I tried harder and stopped feeling sorry for myself, I would “get better.” But I wasn’t just dealing withapathy toward routine. I couldn’t remedy being sick with a strenuous run, a good movie, or simply the passing of time. Depression transcended my circumstances andinvaded my soul. It was more like a day terror — like waking up to a nightmare. Clinical depression painted my world black while screaming quietly that I was worthless. 5 Detailed reading5
Detailed reading I remember driving home from work the week before I checked into the hospital. My co-workers hadn’t noticed any difference in my performance or behavior. I was great at keeping up appearances. I was good at performing. But that evening, I recall wishing I weren’t alive, wishing my car would turn down an empty road and I could disappear. Upon arriving home, I headed straight for my room and slipped under my covers, hoping to sleep. I wanted to escape life because it hurt to breathe. 6 Detailed reading6
Detailed reading Detailed reading7 By the end of my first week at the hospital, I had made up my mind to leave. It wasn’t working. I packed my bags, headed to the front desk, and announced that I was calling my parents to come and pick me up. But my treatment team told me I needed to stay. Defeated and scared, I returned to my room, unpacked my bags and cried myself to sleep. It was time to get honest with myself. 7
Detailed reading Detailed reading8 I was angry. Me, happy Alice, with so much going for her. Stripped of the world’s accolades, it didn’t matter what school I had attended, where I had vacationed, what awards I had won. It didn’t matter who I knew, didn’t know, or thought I knew. What mattered to those surrounding me was that I was honest about my feelings. They didn’t have to be pretty. I didn’t have to look good. I could just be — and that was enough. 8
Detailed reading It was the kindness, sympathy, love and truth demonstrated in the hospital that began unlocking my wounds, hurts anddistorted thinking. I was learning from the worn lives around me. Lives I would have once felt pity for or wanted to distance myself from. They were the ones who possessed strength and courage. They had suffered abuse, neglect, addiction and illnesses. They felt misplaced and forgotten; they were told they didn’t matter. I came from a family filled with love, but as I and others in my hospital “family” shared our suffering, I found I needed their love. 9 Detailed reading9
Detailed reading Getting help and getting rid of the junk cluttering my mind were part of getting better. Hope came gradually, and with small steps slowly returned feeling and clarity. I was changing. My thinking was being altered. I was given a truer sense of who I was: a young woman who needed to be loved for herself, not for what she could offer — not for how she could make you feel. Being honest in the hidden places of my heart. Taking personal responsibility. And slowly, the desire to live, the courage to want to live, began to return. Once truth reveals deception, the lie can no longer deceive unless we choose to let it. 10 Detailed reading10
Detailed reading A year and a half after my release from the hospital, I drove along a country road. The moon was bright. The stars brighter. Snow gave a fresh milky coat to the trees, and the night air was full and dark. I felt so alive. I hadn’t believed there would ever be something good enough or rich enough to make up for the pain and darkness I had known. My pain had been deep. But on this quiet stretch of road, I knew it had all been worth it. I knew that life was different because of my experience. Suffering had painted color into my life, and I could be thankful. 11 Detailed reading11
Detailed reading Paragraph 2 Question The writer stresses at the very beginning that when her sister was suffering from juvenile diabetes, her father cried bitterly for the first time. When do you think her father cried for the second time? Detailed reading1--Quesion 2 It is not difficult to infer that the writer’s father cried for the second time when the writer was diagnosed with clinical depression.
Detailed reading Paragraph 3 Question Would you describe the writer’s personality as a child before she was seized with depression? Detailed reading1--Quesion 3 As a child, the writer had a great passion for life and enjoyed being alive. The simplest of pleasures brought her great joy. She seldom demonstrated a melancholic personality. Any reason for celebration would find her in great excitement.
Detailed reading Paragraph 4 Question Why was the day the writer checked into the hospital considered to be one of the hardest days of her mother’s life? Detailed reading1--Quesion 4 Leaving her daughter behind at the hospital, the author’s mother was seized with extreme sadness, feeling heart-broken. She wondered why her daughter was experiencing so much pain and couldn’t get over it this time.
Detailed reading Paragraph 6 Question What is the main idea of Paragraph 6? Illustrate or exemplify it. Detailed reading1--Quesion 6 Paragraph 6 proves how deep the writer’s depression had been before she was admitted into the hospital. While driving home from work before she was ill, she wished that she weren’t alive. When she arrived home, she had hoped to sleep and escape life because it hurt to breathe.
Detailed reading Paragraph 9 Question Which part in Paragraph 9 is a sentence fragment? Why is it separated from the previous sentence? Detailed reading1--Quesion 9 “Lives I would have once felt pity for or wanted to distance myself from” is a sentence fragment. It is separated from the foregoing sentence for emphasis.
Detailed reading Paragraph 10 Question What do you know about other patients from whose worn lives the writer was learning? Detailed reading1--Quesion 10 They were the ones who possessed strength and courage and had suffered abuse, neglect, addiction and illnesses. They felt misplaced and forgotten. They shared their suffering with the writer. Also, they helped the writer get a truer sense of who she was, see through deception and realize and grasp the truth.
Detailed reading Paragraph 11 Questions 1) What symbolic meaning is conveyed by the bright night described at the end of the text? Detailed reading1--Quesion 11.1 The exceptionally bright night with the bright moon and brighter stars symbolizes a cheerful life the writer is enjoying and a very bright future that she could look forward to.
Detailed reading Paragraph 11 Questions 2) Why does the writer say that she could be thankful? Detailed reading1— Quesion 11.2 Because her deep depression had been worth it and she benefited a lot from it. The writer had gained a wealth of experience and had been able to look at life in a new light. Suffering had painted color into her life, and rendered her life entirely different.
Detailed reading diagnose: v. 1) find out the nature of an illness by observing its symptoms Detailed reading1— diagnose1 e.g. The illness was diagnosed as measles. 2) find out what the cause of a fault is, after doing tests, examinations, etc. e.g. The book diagnoses our present economic ills, explaining what is wrong with the economy. Derivation: diagnosis: n.
Detailed reading Collocations: Detailed reading1— diagnose2 diagnose sb. as (having) sth. e.g. Joe struggled in school before he was diagnosed as dyslexic. diagnose sth. as sth. e.g. The illness was diagnosed as mumps. diagnose sb.with sth. e.g. She was diagnosed with breast cancer.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1— diagnose3 Translation: The doctor has diagnosed the illness as heart disease. 医生把此病诊断为心脏病。 We should diagnose key technical challenge and problem in the project. 我们应解决项目中的关键问题和技术难题。
Detailed reading find oneself doing sth.: do a particular thing, or realize that this is happening, esp. when one did not expect or intend it; do sth. without intending to do so Detailed reading1— find oneself e.g. After wandering around, we found ourselves coming back to the hotel. When he left, Karen found herself heaving a huge sigh of relief. Translation: 我醒来却发现自己躺在地板上。 When I woke up, I found myself lying on the floor. 我发现自己竟然身不由己地又参与了一次无聊的争论。 I found myself being drawn into another boring argument.
Detailed reading drift: v. 1) move slowly on water or in the air Detailed reading1— drift1 e.g. The rubber raft drifted out to sea. 2) move, change, or do sth. without any plan or purpose e.g. Jenny spent the year drifting around Europe. 3) gradually change from being in one condition, situation, etc., into another without realizing it She was just drifting into sleep when the alarm went off. e.g.
Detailed reading Collocations: drift out/towards drift around/along drift into drift away Detailed reading1— drift2 Derivation: drift: n. Translation: 成千上万只灯笼慢慢漂向大海。 Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea. 让过去随着河水流逝吧。 Let the past drift away with the water.
Detailed reading demonstrate: v. 1) show sth. clearly by giving proof or evidence Detailed reading1-- demonstrate e.g. The study demonstrates the link between poverty and malnutrition. 2) show or be an example of sth. e.g. They’ll be demonstrating how to handle modern, high performance cars. Derivations: demonstration: n. demonstrative: adj.
Detailed reading melancholic: adj. characterized by or causing or expressing sadness Detailed reading1-- melancholic e.g. With a melancholic nature, she often suffers from depression. That doctoral candidate possessed a melancholic personality, which is perhaps why he failed to finish. Derivation: melancholy: n.
Detailed reading … I knew we were on a new and unexpected path. Detailed reading1— … I knew we Paraphrase: ... I realized that her illness was going to change her life and ours in a direction we had not expected. Translation: ……我知道我们踏上了一条新的无法预知的路。
Detailed reading At a time in my life when the world was supposed to be opening up to me, I found myself retreating. Apathetic, uncaring, tired, and with no particular vision for any future, I drifted into a world without hope. Detailed reading1— At a time1 Paraphrase: At an age when I expected the world should be opening its arms to welcome me, I found myself drifting away. Uninterested in anything, tired of life and having lost any purpose in life, I was unconsciously developing a mental illness in which I experienced deep hopelessness and worthlessness.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1— At a time 2 Translation: 在我生命中的这个时候，世界本应向我敞开怀抱，可我却退缩了。冷漠、麻木、疲惫，看不见未来，我漂浮在一个没有希望的世界。
Detailed reading ..., I was dropped into a world where wearing my own skin was foreign and ill-fitting. Detailed reading1— I was dropped Paraphrase: ..., I suffered from a terrible illness in which I was even suspicious of my own identity. Translation: ……，我落到了一个世界，在这里坚持自我却显得与周围格格不入。
Detailed reading rummage: vt. turn things over or disarrange them while searching for sth. else Detailed reading1— rummage e.g. When I entered her house, she was rummaging through the contents of a drawer for something. Mother was rummaging around in the attic for an old family album. Collocations: rummage in/through Derivation: rummage: n.
Detailed reading numb: adj. without the power to feel or move; (fig) emotionally incapable of thinking Detailed reading1— numb e.g. My fingers were so numb that I could hardly write. She was completely numb with terror. Derivation: numb: v. Translation: His mind has been numbed. 他已麻木不仁。 I don’t feel so cold now; but heavy and numb. 我现在感到不那么冷了，只是觉得困乏，浑身僵硬。
Detailed reading haze: n. thin mist; (fig) mental confusion or uncertainty Detailed reading1— haze e.g. Things were covered with a haze on that early spring morning. She did not speak clearly about it, because her mind was in a complete haze. Collocations: a haze of in a haze Derivation: haze: vt.
Detailed reading settle (up) on/over sth.: come to rest on sth.; stay on sth. for some time Detailed reading1— settle (up) on e.g. The bird settled on a branch. Clouds have settled over the mountaintops. A tense silence has settled over the waiting crowd.
Detailed reading apathy: n. the feeling of not being interested in sth., and not willing to make any effort to change or improve things; lack of interest, enthusiasm or concern Detailed reading1— She lingered beside 2 … e.g. The campaign failed because of public apathy. She heard the story with apathy. 她无动于衷地听了这个故事。 Derivation: apathetic: adj. Antonym: sympathy
Detailed reading routine: n. a fixed and regular way of doing things; the usual order in which you do things Detailed reading1— apathy e.g. She found it difficult to establish a new routine after retirement. John’s departure had upset their daily routine. Collocation: get intoa routine: develop a fixed order of doing things Derivation: routine: adj.
Detailed reading remedy: vt. put right; deal with a problem or improve a bad situation; provide a remedy for sth. undesirable; rectify Detailed reading1— remedy e.g. To remedy the environment, the water must be chemically treated. We must remedy injustices. If I made a mistake, I will try to remedy it. Derivation: remedy:n. e.g. The mistake is beyond/past remedy. (The mistake cannot be put right.) Synonym: put right
Detailed reading transcend:vt. (fml) go beyond the usual limits of sth.; go beyond the range (of human experience, belief, powers of description, etc.); be much better or greater than sb./sth. Detailed reading1— transcend e.g. One never can see the thing in itself, because the mind does not transcend phenomena. 一个人永远不可能认识事物自身的本质，因为思想无法超越现象。 Such matters transcend man’s knowledge. She far transcends the others in beauty and intelligence. Synonym: surpass
Detailed reading invade:vt. 1) enter a country or territory with armed forces in order to attack, damage, or occupy it Detailed reading1— invade e.g. The Romans invaded Britain 2000 years ago. 2) (fig) enter sth. in large numbers, esp. to cause damage e.g. Every summer the town is invaded by tourists. 3) get involved in something in an unwanted and annoying way e.g. What right does he have to invade my privacy? Synonyms: crowd into intrude on Derivations: invasion: n. invader: n.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1— strip sb strip sb. of sth.: take away (honor, property, etc.) from sb. e.g. The general was stripped of his rank and title. Synonym: deprive sb. of sth.