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The Human Skeletal System. Presented by : FE Bianca Fontejon Ramon Villacorta. FACTS! .

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the human skeletal system

The Human Skeletal System

Presented by: FE

Bianca Fontejon

Ramon Villacorta

  • 2.We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element which may be found in milk, broccoli, and other foods).

1. The human skeleton consists of 206 bones

3. Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals. 

4. The longest bone in our body is the femur (thigh bone), While The smallest bone is the stirrup bone.

5. Each hand has 26 bones in it. 

parts of the bone
  • Marrow- this is where hematopoiesis (production of red blood cells) occur
  • Compact Bone - facilitates bone's main functions: to support the whole body, protect organs, provide levers for movement, and store and release chemical elements, mainly calcium
  • Periosteum- is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones
parts of the bone1
  • Spongy Bone - it has a higher surface area but is less dense, softer, weaker, and less stiff; it usually contains the marrow
  • Cartilage - A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue found in various parts of the body, such as the joints, outer ear, and larynx. A major constituent of the embryonic and young vertebrate skeleton, it is converted largely to bone with maturation
the axial skeleton parts and functions
The Axial Skeleton (parts and functions)

Quick Facts

1. Contains 80 bones.

2. It is composed of six parts



- Supports the center of the body and contains the brain.

  • - Contains cranium which houses and protects the brain.
  • - Contains and supports the eyes
  • - Contains nasal chambers wherein the sense of smell is perceived.
  • Maxillae and mandible form upper and lower jaws having teeth. They help in cutting and chewing food.
  • The hyoid bone (lingual bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage
  • Skull
  • Protects the heart , lungs and other vital organs.
  • Give structure to the body
  • Help you breathe because ribs create changes in pressure in the lungs which results to breathing 
  • Expands whenever you breathe to help facilitate it.
  • The sternum protects the vital area right above your heart and lungs. It completes the rib cage, since the first to the seventh rib is connected to it by coastal cartilage.
  • the sternum is a very hard and resistant bone to break and takes a very large force to actually brake.
  • Protects the heart , lungs and major blood vessels.
  • joins the ribs.
vertebral column
Vertebral Column
  • Provides the posture of the body.
  • Divided into three parts

The sacrum is a triangular bone located at the bottom of the spine. Because of its position between the 2 hip bones, the sacrum functions as a keystone (or wedge), stabilizing the bony pelvis.

the vertebrae protects the spinal chord, provides support to the body as a whole, and serves as a place to which the pectoral and pelvic girdles as well as many muscles attach

The coccyxhelps you sit down comfortably by providing a third point of impact and lots of muscles and tendons attach to it such as those controlling your pelvic floor muscles which help you know when to go to the toilet and those that help you walk like your butt muscle (gluteus maximus).

appendicular skeletal sytem parts and functions

Quick Facts

1. The appendicularskeleton protects the organs of digestion, excretion and reproduction. 

2. called appendicular (from "append") because they are attached by girdles, which bridge each with the main body, as if they had been appended after the main body was formed


The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle(collarbone), the scapula(shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder Joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the Glenohumeral Joint, which generally refers to “The shoulder Joint”.

The most moveable joint.

  • the clavicle or collar bone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum. It is the only long bone in body that lies horizontally. It makes up part of the shoulder and the pectoral girdle and is palpable in all people, and, in people who have less fat in this region, the location of the bone is clearly visible as it creates a bulge in the skin
  • The scapula is the mobile bone to which most of the shoulder muscles are attached. It is attached to the back by other muscles. It serves as a broad plate for the strong anchoring of muscles of the upper extremity. 
  • Allows you to reach objects using your hands.
  • The radius' primary function includes motion of the arm and support of the arm. The radius connects to many muscles, such as the biceps.

The ulna runs parallel to the radius from the elbow to the wrist. Like the other arm bones, the ulna is relatively long and slightly curved. The primary function of the ulna is allowing motion and supporting the arm.

  • Carpal bones connects ligaments and the lower arm bones, and the "hamate," "capitate," "trapezoid," and "trapezium" on the lower side of the hand by the "metacarpals," or first joint of the fingers.
  • phalanges are the small bones that make up the skeleton of the fingers, thumb and toes. Each finger and smaller toe has three phalanges; the thumb and big toe each have two. The phalange nearest the body of the hand or foot is call the "proximal" phalange; the one at the end of each digit is the "distal" phalange;
pelvic girdle
Pelvic girdle
  • pelvic girdle, also called bony pelvis,  it connects the trunk and legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, urinary bladder,and internal sex organs. The pelvic girdle consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic symphysis and behind by the sacrum; each is made up of three bones—the blade-shaped ilium. above and to either side, which accounts for the width of the hips; the ischium, behind and below, on which the weight falls in sitting; and the pubis in front.
lower limbs
Lower limbs

- The femur is the longest bone of the human skeleton, one of the strongest bones and supports weight and allows movement in the lower body.

  • The patella protects the knee joint and also allows increased knee movement.
  • The Tibia is a long bone and the second largest bone, also supports weight.
  • The fibula supports weight and allows movement.
long bones
Long bones
  • Found on the legs and arms.
  • Hollow, lightweight yet strong.
  • Made for supporting weight and movement.
flat bones
FLAT Bones
  • Protects and supports the body.


Skull, ribs, breastbone, etc.

short bones
SHOrt bones

- Supports weight and allows many small movements.

irregular bones
Irregular BONES
  • Irregularly shaped.


Wrist bone,ankle bones and the vertebrae.

what are joints
What are joints?
  • Joints are bones connected to one another, the end of each bone is covered by a tough and smooth substance called Cartilage. The bone ends are kept apart by a thin slippery substance called Synovia Fluid, this substance ensures the bones from scratching and bumping to each other and to withstand great pressure and stress. The bones are held together by strong stretchy bands called Ligaments. The Ligaments help stabilize joints and prevent the joints from moving too far in one direction. Bones are connected to muscles by a dense connective tissue called Tendons.
immovable joints
Immovable Joints

- Fixed Joints that are fused by a protein called Collagen, this allows little or no movement at all.

freely movable joints
Freely Movable Joints

- The wide range of motion of the human body is due to the presence of freely movable joints.

slightly movable joints
Slightly Movable Joints

Allow the bones limited movement. Slightly Movable Joints are found between bones of the rib cage.

ball and socket joint
Ball-and-Socket Joint

Allows the movement in all directions.


Shoulder Joints and Hips.

Hip Joints

gliding joint
Gliding Joint

Allows the sliding motion (back and forth movement)


Wrist and Ankles

saddle joint
Saddle Joint

Allows the rotation, bending, and straightening motion.


Base of Thumbs