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Cosmetology. Digestive & Excretory Systems. Performance Objectives.

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Digestive & Excretory Systems

performance objectives
Performance Objectives
  • Upon completion of this lesson, the student will be able to identify and describe the key functions and processes of the digestive and excretory systems. The student will demonstrate these competencies by completing a written test with a minimum of 80 percent accuracy.
specific objectives
Specific Objectives
  • Identify the key responsibility of the digestive system
  • Describe the digestive process
  • List and describe the five basic activities the digestive system performs to prepare food for use by cells
  • Identify the parts of the digestive tract and their main functions
  • Identify the key responsibility of the excretory system
  • Name the key organs that play a role in the excretory system and their functions
key responsibility of the digestive system
Key Responsibility of the Digestive System
  • Responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste
  • Allows the body’s cells to convert food into high-energy molecules that run the cell’s machinery
the digestive process
The Digestive Process
  • Digestive enzymes are chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body
  • Once the food is in a soluble form, it is transported by the bloodstream and used by the body’s cells and tissues
  • The entire digestive process takes about nine hours to complete
the 5 basic activities the digestive system performs
The 5 Basic Activities the Digestive System Performs
  • Ingestion - taking food into the body
  • Peristalsis - the physical movement or pushing of food along the digestive track
  • Digestion - the breakdown of food
  • Absorption - the passage of digested food from the digestive tract into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems for distribution to the body’s cells
  • Defecation - the elimination from the body of those substances that are indigestible and cannot be absorbed
digestive tract parts and functions
Digestive Tract:Parts and Functions

Mouth, or oral cavity:

  • Teeth bite off and chew food into a soft pulp that is easy to swallow
  • Chewing mixes the food with watery saliva to make it moist and slippery


  • Begins the process of swallowing, moving the food from the mouth
digestive tract parts and functions 2
Digestive Tract:Parts and Functions (2)


  • A collapsible, muscular tube that secretes mucus and transports food from the throat to the stomach


  • Begins the digestion of proteins (carbohydrates begin to digest in the mouth), mashes the food into soupy consistency and passes the contents to the small intestine
  • The stomach also produces digestive juices that attack the food and dissolve its nutrients
digestive tract parts and functions 3
Digestive Tract:Parts and Functions (3)


  • Approximately 21 feet in length and 1 inch in diameter, the small intestine performs the major portion of the absorption and digestion
  • Enzymes continue the chemical attack on the food, and finally the nutrients are small enough to pass through the lining of the small intestine and into the blood
  • The nutrients are carried away to the liver and other body parts to be processed, stored, and distributed
digestive tract parts and functions 4
Digestive Tract:Parts and Functions (4)

Large intestine:

  • Approximately 5 feet in length and 2.5 inches in diameter
  • Absorbs spare water and minerals through the walls of the large intestine, back into the blood
  • Forms feces and removes it from the body
key responsibility of the excretory system
Key Responsibility of the Excretory System
  • A group of organs responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter
  • The metabolism of body cells forms various toxic substances that, if retained, could poison the body
key organs of the excretory system
Key Organs of theExcretory System


  • The most important organ in the excretory system
  • Kidneys clean the body’s blood 40 times a day
  • The waste from the blood creates urine
key organs of the excretory system 2
Key Organs of theExcretory System (2)


  • Largest internal organ in the body
  • Functions as part of the digestive, excretory, and circulatory systems
  • Produces bile and discharges it to gall bladder, and then passes to the small intestine where it breaks down molecules
key organs of the excretory system 3
Key Organs of theExcretory System (3)


  • Eliminates waste through perspiration

Large intestine:

  • Eliminates decomposed and undigested food as described in the digestive system section


  • Exhale carbon dioxide
  • The digestive and excretory systems perform important functions for the body. They also work with the other systems to maintain homeostasis (maintaining the body’s internal environment).