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UNIT 3 DEVELOPING A NATIONAL IDENTITY. CHAPTER 7 FROM NATIONALISM TO SECTIONALISM CH. 7-1 THE RISE OF NATIONALISM. A NEW AMERICAN CULTURE. Fewer than 10 millions Americans Largest city: New York – 120,000 The USA was growing rapidly A COUNTRY “IN CONSTANT MOTION”

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UNIT 3 DEVELOPING A NATIONAL IDENTITY


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    1. UNIT 3 DEVELOPING A NATIONAL IDENTITY CHAPTER 7 FROM NATIONALISM TO SECTIONALISM CH. 7-1 THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

    2. A NEW AMERICAN CULTURE • Fewer than 10 millions Americans • Largest city: New York – 120,000 • The USA was growing rapidly • A COUNTRY “IN CONSTANT MOTION” • Americans slowly developed their own culture • French observer: Alexis de Tocqueville • Wrote about the endless energy of Americans • Americans began doing things in unique ways

    3. AMERICAN ART AND LITERATURE • Before 1800s, artists and writers were paid little respect. • 1825—painter Thomas Cole established the Hudson River School (painting p. 239) • Writers gained respect in the early 1800s • Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant • 1828—new American English was published by lexicographer Noah Webster • “American Dictionary of the English Language”

    4. NATIONALISM INFLUENCES DOMESTIC POLICY • NATIONALISM—the belief that the interests of the nation as a whole are more important than regional interests of the interests of other countries • SECTIONALISM—the belief that one’s own section, or region, of the country is more important than the whole. • JOHN MARSHALL • Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court 1801-1835 • Firm believer in strong national government • Made two key rulings that dealt with nationalism

    5. TWO KEY RULINGS • 1819—McCulloch v. Maryland • State of Maryland vs. National Government • Ruling: national interests were to be put above state interests • 1824—Gibbons v. Ogden • Rival steamboat companies • Aaron Ogden received permission from NY to run a business • Thomas Gibbons had a license from the national government to run his. • Case goes before the Supreme Court

    6. Ruling: Court ruled in favor of Gibbons • National law was superior to state law • Nationalism had triumphed over sectionalism in matters of the Constitution • THE AMERICAN SYSTEM • Championed by Henry Clay (House speaker) • Tariff to protest American industries • Sale of government lands to raise money for the government • Maintenance of the national bank • Government funding of public projects such as roads and canals

    7. American system was never implemented as a unified policy but it did show how nationalism was on peoples’ minds • NATIONALISM GUIDES FOREIGN POLICY • THE ERA OF GOOD FEELING • 1816—James Monroe elected President • Economy is growing rapidly • Spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed

    8. DIPLOMATIC SUCCESSES • 1818—Rush-Bagot Treaty signed with Britain • Provided almost complete disarmament of the eastern part of the border with USA and British Canada • Western part of the US/Canadian border drawn on the 49th parallel • 1819—Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spain reach agreement—Adams-Onis Treaty • The USA acquires Florida and establishes a firm boundary between the Louisiana Territory and Spanish territory • Adams expanded the country to the south and east

    9. THE MONROE DOCTRINE • USA still faced a foreign policy problem • Spain colonized Central and South America in the 1600s and 1700s • France had taken the colonies from Spain • Spain considered taking them back • Great Britain is worried this action will threaten trade with the colonies • USA worried that other countries would want land in America like the Pacific Northwest

    10. The Monroe Doctrine stated that the USA would view any European attempts to further colonize the Americas “as dangerous to our peace and safety.” • The USA would not “interfere in the internal concerns” of Europe • THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE • 1 in 6 settlers in Missouri were slaves • 1819—22 states in the Union • Half the states were “free” states and the other half were “slave” • Missouri applies for statehood

    11. If Missouri is admitted as a slave state the balance would be upset • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 • Missouri admitted as a slave state • Maine admitted as a free state • Slavery banned in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory • Feelings of sectionalism were starting to emerge. • The End