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Phylogeny of Extant Phyla. Phylum Porifera. Sponges Sole member of the Parazoa Lack true tissues, Simplest of Animals, no nerves or muscles Choanocytes (collar cells)  “Unique flagellated cells that ingest bacteria and tiny food particles” Choanocytes look a lot like Choanoflagellates

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Porifera characteristics l.jpg

  • Sponges

  • Sole member of the Parazoa

  • Lack true tissues, Simplest of Animals, no nerves or muscles

  • Choanocytes (collar cells)  “Unique flagellated cells that ingest bacteria and tiny food particles”

  • Choanocytes look a lot like Choanoflagellates

  • Amoebocytes transfer food to rest of cells

  • Adults sessile, larvae non-sessile

  • “Cells tend to be totipotent (retain zygote’s ability to form the whole animal)”

Porifera Characteristics







Cnidaria characteristics l.jpg
Cnidaria Characteristics

  • Hydras, Jellies, Sea Anenomies, Corals

  • One member of the Radiata (also Ctenophora)

  • Diploblastic, Carnivorous, Tentacled

  • Lack true muscles (since no mesoderm)

  • Possess nerve net

  • Cnidocytes Cells that shoot stinging or grasping threads at potential prey

  • Grastrovascular cavity (only one opening) = Hydrostatic Skeleton

  • Polyps vs. Medusa









Platyhelminth characteristics l.jpg

  • Flatworms (including Flukes and Tapeworms)

  • Bilaterally symmetrical acoelomates

  • Flat, unsegmented, single opening to gastrovascular cavity

  • Eyespots, flaps on head involved in sense of smell

  • No circulatory system (instead diffusion)

  • Tapeworms have no digestive system

  • Use ventral cilia to locomote across surfaces (but some can swim)

  • Cephalized, have nervous system

Platyhelminth Characteristics


Planarian anatomy l.jpg
Planarian Anatomy

Class Turbellaria


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Fluke Lifecycle

Class Trematoda


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Tapeworm Anatomy

Class Cestoidea



Rotifer characteristics l.jpg
Rotifer Characteristics

  • Rotifers

  • Very small animals

  • Possess complete digestive tract

  • Pseudocoelomates

  • Aquatic, essentially serve as animals that approximate the protozoan niche



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Nematode Characteristics

  • Round worms (including pinworms & hookworms)

  • Pseudocoelamates, complete digestive tracts

  • There are many free-living nematodes as well as some parasitic nemotodes

  • Includes Caenorhabitis elegans, a very important research organism to developmental biology




Mollusk characteristics l.jpg
Mollusk Characteristics

  • Snails, Slugs, Clams, Squids, Octopi, etc.

  • Class Gastropoda, Class Bivalvia, Class Cephalopoda, etc.

  • Protostomes

  • Basic body plan built around a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle

  • Not all mollusks have a shell

  • Mollusks lack segmentation

  • Most have OpenCirculatory System

  • Some (cephalopods) have Closed Circulatory System









Annelid characteristics l.jpg
Annelid Characteristics

  • Segmented worms (earth, marine, leeches)

  • Class Oligochaeta (I.e., earth worms), Class Polychaeta (e.g., clam worms), Class Hirudinea (I.e., leeches)

  • Protostomes, Body segments, Closed circulatory system






Arthropod characteristics l.jpg
Arthropod Characteristics

  • Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs, Millipedes, Centipedes, Ticks, Mites, etc.

  • Protostomes with segmented bodies, jointed appendages, and hard (chitinous) exoskeletons

  • Also have well-developed senses and open circulation

  • Note that the taxonomy of the arthropods is in some turmoil and we will try to split the difference by describing “phylum” Arthopoda as a Superphylum…

  • …What previously were subphyla as phyla…







Echinoderm characteristics l.jpg
Echinoderm Characteristics

  • Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchin, sea lilies, sea cucumbers

  • Coelomates, Deuterostomes

  • Multiple arms, tube feet, water vascular system, calciferous endoskeleton

  • Radial symmetry, but radial symmetry likely derived (i.e., not radiata)

  • Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical


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Acknowledgements

http://boxes.geneseo.edu/Biology/odonnell/Biol%20119,%20S2003/


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