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Protozoa Phyla

Protozoa Phyla. List of Phyla. Amoeba-like organisms (e.g., Amoeba ) Phylum Euglenozoa Subphylum Euglenida (e.g., Euglena ) Subphylum Kinetoplasta (e.g., Trypanosoma ) Phylum Chlorophyta (e.g., Volvox ) Phylum Apicomplexa (e.g., Plasmodium ) Phylum Ciliophora (e.g., Paramecium ).

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Protozoa Phyla

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  1. Protozoa Phyla

  2. List of Phyla • Amoeba-like organisms (e.g., Amoeba) • Phylum Euglenozoa • Subphylum Euglenida (e.g., Euglena) • Subphylum Kinetoplasta (e.g., Trypanosoma) • Phylum Chlorophyta (e.g., Volvox) • Phylum Apicomplexa (e.g., Plasmodium) • Phylum Ciliophora (e.g., Paramecium)

  3. General Characteristics • Single-celled or unicellular organisms; some live in colonies; • Size = microscopic (3 to 1,000 microns). • No germ layers, tissues, or organs; • However, specialized intracellular "organelles" are present

  4. General Characteristics • Locomotion by pseudopodia, flagella, or cilia. • Symmetry = all types (bilateral, radial, spherical, or asymmetrical) • Free living, commensal, parasitic, or mutualistic • Mostly naked, but few have simple protective exoskeletons (tests). Ex. = Arcella

  5. General Characteristics • Nutrition = autotrophic (holophytic), saprozoic, saprophytic, or holozoic. • Reproduction: asexual = longitudinal and transverse binary fission, budding, • Sexual = sporogony, and autogamy

  6. Amoeba-like organisms

  7. Amoeba-like organisms • Organisms move by pseudopodia, flagella, or a combination • Monomorphic nuclei • Genera • Amoeba- without a test, naked • Arcella- with a calcareous test

  8. Figure 11.10

  9. Amoeba Pseudopod Food Vacuole Contractile Vacuole Nucleus Phagocytosis Hyaline Cap

  10. Figure 11.05 Amoeba hunting food

  11. Arcella Side View Test Pseudopod

  12. Arcella Nucleus Top View

  13. Phylum Euglenozoa • Organisms move by one or two flagella • Monomorphic nuclei • Capable of photosynthesis; chloroplasts usually present

  14. Subphylum Euglenida • Plant like organisms • Solitary • Can photosynthesize

  15. Euglena

  16. Euglena Chloroplasts Contractile Vacuole Flagellum not visible Stigma

  17. Subphylum Kinetoplasta • Organisms are only heterotrophic • No chloroplasts present • all parasitic Red Blood Cells Trypanosoma smear – cause of sleeping sickness Organism

  18. Trypanasoma Trypanosoma organism Red Blood Cells

  19. Phylum Chlorophyta • Flagellated single or colonial organisms • Are autotrophic • Have chloroplasts with chlorophyll • Genetically different from Euglenozoa

  20. Volvox life cycle Figure 11.20

  21. Volvox Zygote Egg Mother Colony

  22. Daughter Colonies Mother Colony Nuclei of individual cells

  23. Phylum Apicomplexa • organisms do not have locomotor structures; • all species are parasitic • asexual reproduction involves schizogony Plasmodium smear – cause of Malaria

  24. Final Host Plasmodium – agent For malaria Vector

  25. Ring stage trophozoite merozoite Red blood cell Trophozooite

  26. Ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage – Early Trophozoite

  27. Schizont with merozoites in red blood cell Red blood cell Merozoites in the Schizont

  28. Female Male Gametocytes

  29. Phylum CiliophoraThe Ciliates • Organisms move by cilia • Usually two sizes of nuclei • Macronucleus and micronucleus • Reproduction usually by transverse binary fission • but sexual reproduction by conjugation

  30. Paramecium

  31. Binary Fission – Asexual Reproduction

  32. Conjugation – sexual reproduction

  33. Vorticella

  34. Stentor

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