Modul 12 Australian Multiculturalism. I. Six Key Factors in the Emergencies of Multiculturalism in Australia 1 Undeniable reality Australia = multicultural society 1 The Xenophobia was waning 1 The immigrant communities were becoming confident and articulate.
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I.Six Key Factors in the Emergencies of Multiculturalism in Australia1Undeniable reality Australia = multicultural society1The Xenophobia was waning1The immigrant communities were becoming confident and articulate
1Expansion of migrants and ethnic community groups cultural political issues1Labor Party Immigration Policy in 1972 to 1975 (Minister AI Grassby)1Social reform
II.Immigration Policy : A Historical PerspectiveBefore 19011Racial exclusion1Predominantly British11850’s : gold rush, non - British migrants increasing (China, German, Poland, America, Scandinavia, Hungarian)
White Australia Policy (1901)1Before World - War IIÄRacial exclusion (official)Ä1901 – 1940 : predominantly assisted British migrants and Southern Europeans (Italian and Greek)Ä1945 : ALP / Arthur Callwell as first immigration minister, planned immigration
1Post – World - War II ÄPopulate or PerishÄNon - British :10 BritishÄTwo – year – indenture labor, unskilled labor (non - British), assisted (British)ÄDisplaced - persons (Baltic)ÄHeterogeneity, not homogeneityÄDiversity by default, not by design
III.Multiculturalism and Multicultural Policy Multicultural policy : public / government policyMulticulturalism : (everyday) multicultural policy
The question :1Which countries implement this ?1When adopted by Australia ?1For whom ?1 By whom ?1Why ?
IV.Multiculturalism as Theory and Practice1Al Grassby (1973) : ‘A multicultural society for the future family of the nation’ : contribution of migrants1Zubrzycki (1977) : cultural pluralism1Jean Martin : structural pluralism (emphasis on access to economic and political structures)
1Galbally (1977) : multiculturalism as practice1Blainey (1984) : multiculturalism as divisive1Jupp (1986) : reaffirm multiculturalism as public policy, proposed for structural pluralism
V.Multiculturalism : Pros and Cons1Pros ÄCapitalistsÄMajor political partiesÄLabor shortagesÄDefense / securitiesÄGrowing marketÄCapitalÄBenefits, etc
1Cons, right – wing : Blainey (1984), KnopflemacherÄCostly and divisive (publicly - funded, minorities interests, disanglified)1Cons, left - wing : Jakubowicz, LepervancheÄMulticulturalism as strategy for containmentÄEffective means for social – control - initiated by the state
VI.Multicultural Policy and Immigration Policy1Multicultural policyIntroduced in 1973 after the failure of ÄAssimilation and integrationÄAssimilationÄIntegration
1Assimilation (postwar - mid 60s)ÄNon - policy, mono - culturalism, Anglo-conformityÄMigrants discard cultural baggage, assimilateÄTreating migrants as other Australians
Ä‘New Australians’ÄGap between rhetoric and realityÄProblems of settlement NESB ÄMid 60s special assistance for migrants
1Integration (mid 60s - early 70s)ÄTransitionalÄAssimilation section integration section (1964)ÄAd hoc response, not systematic policy to migrant - communities demand
1Multicultural Policy (1972 – present)ÄGuiding principle for migrant settlementÄCelebration of migrant cultural ‘trappings’ÄDiversity not homogeneityÄCultural pluralism not monoculturalismÄSalad bowl, not melting - pot
VII.Three Dimensions for Multiculturalism in Australia1Cultural identityThe right of all Australian within carefully defined limits, to express and share their individual cultural heritage, including language and religion
1Social justiceThe right of all Australian to equality of treatment and opportunity and the removal of barrier of race, ethnicity culture, religion, language, gender and place of birth1Economic efficiencyThe need to maintain, develop and utilize effectively the skills and talents of all Australian
VIII.Multicultural Institutions 1AIMA (Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs), 19791OMA (Office of Multicultural Affairs), 19871ACMA (Advisory Council for Multicultural Affairs), 1989
1NMAC (National Multicultural Advisory Council), 19941DIMA (Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs), 19961NMAC (new) (National Multicultural Advisory Council), 1997