BLUE BOOK 676-677 • Name THREE things the Treaty of Versailles did to Germany
Answer in your spiral, with partner… • Open the RED book to pages 804-805 “The War Begins” • Use facts from the reading to support this statement: “During the 1930’s, people were willing to give up their rights.” • Write IMPORTANT FACTS about each of the following countries: Italy, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union…
Vice • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrCQh1usdzE • Nat Geo • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVG4mOgJotY
1. Explain the differences between Democratic, Fascist and Communist governments? List the type of government each major country had. How might Communist and Fascist governments have had an advantage in fighting a war with democracies? I. Differences between Democratic, Fascist & Communism A. Democracies: Based on Individual Rights 1. Economic Rights: Capitalism (Own Business & Make $) 2. Government Rights: Democratic Elected Gov’t a. Choose Leaders by voting in some way 3. Examples: United States /Britain / France
B. Fascist: Dictatorship w/Private Business 1. Economic Rights: Capitalism (Own Business & Make $) 2. Government No Rights: Totalitarian / Dictatorship One Person or Party Leader 3. Examples: Germany / Italy / Japan
C. Communism: ‘Good’ of everyone no Individual 1. Economic No Rights: All Owned by Gov’t 2. Government Rights: Totalitarian / Dictatorship: One Person or Party Leader 3. Examples: Soviet Union (Russia) D. Advantage & Disadvantages 1. Communism & Fascism: Gov’t controls ALL information & there is NO opposition 2. Democracies: People chose to fight, can elect new leaders any time
Fascism Communism Democracy
Economies • Communism government owns ALL businesses; all resources SHARED equally • Socialism: government owns and operates country’s means of production. SOME private businesses • Capitalism everything is based on choice and competition, PRIVATE businesses run most businesses
Germany (AXIS) • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) • Born in Austria in 1889, the fourth child of six • Aspired to be an artist, was twice rejected for the Academy for Fine arts in Vienna • Hitler was jailed for just over a year for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch • Used “Emergency Powers” to become Dictator of Germany Hitler fought in World War I, he is in the picture at the far left
Italy (AXIS) • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Prime Minister of Italy from 1922 to 1943 • Before WWI, was a journalist • Was known as IL DUCE (the supreme leader)
Great Britain (ALLIES) • Neville Chamberlain (Prime Minister 1937-1940) -Most famous for his policy of APPEASEMENT towards Hitler • Winston Churchill (Prime Minister 1940-1945) -Churchill had a speech impediment
Japan (AXIS) • Emperor Hirohito (ruler of Japan from 1926-1989) • There is much debate over how much he controlled Japan during World War II • Many point to General Tojo as the true leader of Japan • When he spoke to Surrender at the end of WWII, it was the first time ordinary citizens had ever heard his voice
Soviet Union (ALLIES) • Josef Stalin (leader of Soviet Union from 1922-1953) • Real name was Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili • He adopted the Russian name STALIN, which MEANS STEEL • Aspired to be a Priest • Estimates range from 10,000,000-30,000,000 people killed during Stalin’s regime (more than the Holocaust)
United States (ALLIES) • Franklin Delanoe Roosevelt (1933-1945) • Only President to serve more than two terms (elected to four terms) • He Died on April 12, 1945 (May 8th war ended in Europe) • Harry Truman (President 1945-1953) -he was Chosen as Roosevelt’s Vice President for his 4th term in 1944
8-11 • British leader during MOST of WWII • American leader during most of WWII • Leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) • Leader of Japan • “Il Duce” Leader of Italy 8. Mussolini 9. Churchill 10. Roosevelt 11. Hitler
Leaders of the War Democracy Fascism Communism
Review: What did the Treaty of Versailles Say about Germany??? Review: Fill in the missing boxes on the Table
Review • Read “The Treaty of Versailles” in the BLUE BOOK on page 677 • What did the Treaty of Versailles do to Germany?
Lend-Lease opener • First line # the document, then, with your partner, answer each question COMPLETELY. • When you are done… • Go through notes #2 with your partner • HIGHLIGHT answers to #2 OBJ box • CIRCLE vocabulary words
Statistics of Lend-Lease • From 1942 to September 1945, the Soviet Union received 9,000 tanks or self-propelled guns, 362,000 trucks, 47,000 jeeps, 131,633 submachine guns, 3,000 rocket launchers, 14,000,000 boots, 532,000 tons of U.S. sugar, 485,000 tons of canned meat (i.e., Spam) and hundreds of other items. Twenty percent of the Lend-Lease supplies the Soviets received were military, while the rest were food, metals, chemicals, petroleum products, and factory machinery.
2. Describe the major causes of WWII in Europe. How did the Depression and WWI play a role?What did Hitler say was his reason for expanding Germany’s borders? Name 2 territories Hitler added before fighting. Name and describe the type of warfare Hitler used. What was the reaction of the U.S. to war in Europe? The German inflation of 1923— one dollar worth trillions of marks. II. Major Causes of WWII in Europe A. WWI & Depression Major Causes 1. Winners of WWI harsh on Germany (Reparations & Small Military)- Humiliation 2. Great Depression hurts Europe (Germany Bad) a. Fascist think Democracy is Weak & can’t help B. Rise of Fascism due to WWI & Depression 1. Italy the 1st Fascist Country a. Upset it didn’t get more after WWI b. Benito Mussolini comes to power in 1922 2. Germany & Adolf Hitler a. NAZI- National Socialist German Worker Party b. Uses ‘Thugs’ – Brown Shirts to beat up opponents & critics (Young men , no jobs) c. Wants to blame everyone for Germany’s trouble: Jews, Democracy!!, The Allies d. Never Had Majority- Scared or Killed People Mussolini and Hitler
Review • Define lebensraum and appeasement • Provide at least two possible reasons why countries did not stop Hitler sooner
C. Hitler’s Goals For Revenge!! 1. “LEBENSRAUM” -Living Space’ for Germans a. Take land from non-Germans (Less Human) and give to his even if in another country b. Adds Land & no Fighting: APPEASEMENT -Britain & France give land to avoid War -Austria, Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia- all) 2. Builds Huge Military a. Modern Army with Tanks, Planes & ships -All move Fast & work together (radio) b. BLITZKREIG- ‘Lightning War’ -Nazi's Practice in Spain to help Fascist fight in that Country (Franco) Neville Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, was the “face” of appeasement
Critical Thinking: Why would Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union want to make a peace treaty, at least for awhile (they are BITTER ENEMIES)???? D. War & The Reaction 1. Hitler Invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939 a. Uses Blitzkrieg & destroys Poland b. Britain & France declare WAR -Appeasement was a Joke -Hitler had secret treaty with Soviets (Stalin) 2. United States Reaction a. Officially Neutral & Isolationist -Many famous people almost like Hitler (Ford, Kennedy, Lindbergh) b. Great Britain all Alone!!! (Churchill) -France got butt kicked & Germany controls it -Germany bombing Britain & Planning Attack c. Roosevelt helps Britain -Lend Lease policy (Boats/Guns) -Atlantic Charter- US/Britain are ‘Friends’ -U.S. begins to build up own Military Map showing the Sudetenland, the new protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, and how Poland was divided after its invasion.
Dunkirk • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNKeKBcLZQk
Read THE JAPANESE THREAT in the BLUE BOOK, pages748-749, with your partner • In what ways does JAPAN’s role in ASIA parallel, or mirror, what Germany was doing in Europe? • What action(s) by the United States led to Japan planning an attack on Pearl Harbor? • What parts of the Pearl Harbor were a SUCCESS for Japan? What could be considered a failure? • What dominoes fell in the days after December 7, 1941? • In your opinion, do you think the United States would have joined World War II eventually? Why or why not?
3. Explain Japan’s expansion in the Pacific. Who had taken control of the Japanese government? Which country suffered the most from this expansion? What were their goals for the attack of Pearl Harbor? III. Japan’s Expansion in the Pacific A. Military takes control of Japan 1. Emperor Hirohito’s power????? (Prisoner??) a. General Tojo in real power 2. Wants Japan to be Equal to European Powers a. Believes they are better than all Asians just like Germany in Europe (which –ISM???) b. Signs Treaty with Germany Japanese Prime Minister Tojo (center) toasting alliance with Germany
B. Japan wants Raw Materials & Colonies 1. Invades China, Korea, British Colonies a. Brutal to China ‘Rape of Nanking’ -Murder MILLIONS of Chinese 2. Only competition in Pacific is the Unites States a. U.S. has Philippines, Hawaii, Samoa, Alaska
Pearl Harbor • Pacific Navy stationed there • If Japan is to be attacked by America, how would it be done??? • Goal is to CRIPPLE U.S.
Facts from attack • Facts: first wave 181 planes, second wave 170 planes • Over 90 ships anchored, 21 ships sunk/damaged, 188 airplanes destroyed 159 damaged, 2403 people killed • Only 29 planes failed to return Of the damaged ships, only THREE did not return to action, plus AIRCRAFT CARRIERS were not in Pearl Harbor!
C. Attacking the U.S. – Pearl Harbor 1. Japan thinks U.S. is Racist (true) & will try to stop them from growing (true) a. U.S. stopped selling Steel & limits trade to them 2. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii- Dec. 7th, 1941 a. Goal to destroy U.S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS - Carriers out to sea & they survive b. Surprise Attack – U.S. should have known -Japanese Code Broke 3. Waking a “Sleeping Dog” a. Japanese General said it was a mistake b. U.S. declares War -Roosevelt – “ A day that will live in infamy” Germany declares war on U.S. The USS Arizona (BB-39) burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Aircraft damage at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii from Japanese attack.
Location of ships Major Ships at harbor: USS Arizona - Magazine explosion, sunk with few survivors USS California - Sunk USS Maryland - Damaged USS Nevada - Damaged and run aground USS Oklahoma - Capsized and sunk USS Pennsylvania - Damaged. The Pennsylvania was in dry dock USS Tennessee - Damaged USS West Virginia - Sunk