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Chapter 22: A World at War

Chapter 22: A World at War

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Chapter 22: A World at War

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  1. Chapter 22: A World at War 1941-1945

  2. Introduction: To Do (35 pts): • Define 10 terms • List 4 new responsibilities of women during WWII • Pg. 419 (1-2) – complete sentences • Bonus (2 pts.) – Who is Rosie the Riveter?

  3. 22.1: A World at War Again

  4. Terms • Axis Powers: the countries that fought the Allies in World War II • Mobilize: to get ready for war • Siege: a military blocking of a city to force its surrender

  5. Remember? • Pearl Harbor was attacked • December 7, 1941 • War was declared • December 8, 1941 • War had spread throughout the world… again.

  6. The US Declares War • US was shocked by the Pearl Harbor attacks • Declared war on Japan immediately • Japan allies = Germany and Italy • US allies = Great Britain and the Soviet Union • Fought the AXIS powers • December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declared war on the US

  7. The US Declares War • December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declared war on the US • US began to mobilize forces • 10,000,000 men were drafted • 6,000,000 men and women volunteered

  8. Japan Grows More Powerful • After Pearl Harbor – Japan attacked other US bases • Japan’s leader = Hideki Tojo • Goal = Japan most powerful empire in the world • 1942 – goal seemed attainable

  9. Japan Grows More Powerful • Japan took control of: • Hong Kong • Singapore • US held islands • Philippines • US had been stationed on the Philippines since the Spanish American War • Troops fought back against Japan • Commander: General Douglas MacArthur

  10. Japan Grows More Powerful • Japan pushed troops further and further into the Philippines (Bataan) • Put troops under siege = forced surrender • Roosevelt ordered General MacArthur to to go Australia • Take command of Allied forces there • MacArthur = “I shall return” • Death March: • Americans and Filipinos forced to march 65 miles to prison camps • No food or water

  11. The Allies Make Plans • The “Big Three” • Roosevelt = US • Churchill = Britain • Stalin = Soviet Union • Agreed that they would have to defeat the Axis powers in Europe – all planned • Stalin: US / Britain – attack the west coast • Roosevelt: US and Britain should start in France • Churchill: US and Britain should attack Italy through North Africa (German troops were weakest there)

  12. The Allies Make Plans • Everyone agreed: • German defeat was #1 goal • Agreed on a plan: • Attack German forces in N. Africa first • Troops were weakest there • Move to the west coast • Then move to attack the Pacific area

  13. To Do • Pg. 408 (1-3) – Complete sentences • Exercise 92 – not necessarily complete sentences

  14. 22.2: The Allies Strike Back

  15. Terms • Partisan: a person who strongly believes in a curse • Amphibious landing: a planned movement of troops from the sea

  16. WWII take overs… • Germany = controlled most of Europe • Japan = taken large parts of Asia • Quickly – US and British soldiers won major victories

  17. Fighting in N. Africa and Italy • Allies prepared • First – control North Africa • Second – attack Italy • Germany and Italy also wanted N. Africa • 3 years of fighting over N. Africa • Fighting in a desert was difficult / new warfare

  18. Fighting in N. Africa and Italy • Allies vs. German general Erwin Rommel • October 1942 • British troops hit Rommel’s forces from the east • 2 weeks later: US troops landed in Africa • Dwight D. Eisenhower • Headed for Rommel’s forces • May 1943 – Rommel was defeated

  19. Fighting in N. Africa and Italy • From N. Africa: • Allies moved across the Mediterranean Sea • Attacked Italy • Italians had turned against Mussolini and the Fascists • Also did not like the Nazis • Joined groups who were fighting the Germans • Hitler’s troops went to Italy to fight the Allies • June 1944 – Allied forces had defeated Italy

  20. War in the Pacific • Spring 1942: • Allies began moving across the Pacific Ocean • American bombers took off and headed for Tokyo • Bombed • Factories • Railroad yards • Navy base • Japan was shocked: they had never been attacked

  21. War in the Pacific • Japan pushed closer to US territory • US v. Japan = forces met at Midway Island • Code experts figured out Japanese messages • US always knew where enemy ships were going to be • June 4, 1942: US attacked Japanese planes • Caught off guard / huge losses • Battle of Midway – 1st big Japanese defeat

  22. Island-hopping • Japanese held many islands in the Pacific • US decided to capture islands • Could use islands to • Attack other islands • Cut off Japan from supplies • US plan = island hopping • Use Marines made “amphibious landings” • All troops worked together for an invasion

  23. Island-hopping • US plan = island hopping • Use Marines made “amphibious landings” • All troops worked together for an invasion • Taken islands became supply bases for attacks on other islands • 1943-1944: US pushed Japan’s forces were pushed back to Japan

  24. To Do • Pg. 410 – complete sentences • Pg. 411 (1-2): #2 – name 3 battles for full credit • Pg. 412 (1-3) – complete sentences • Exercise 93

  25. 22.3: The War at Home

  26. Terms • Rationing: limiting the amount of something that each person can buy • Internment camp: a prisonlike place in which people are held during a war

  27. Back at home… • The US needed huge supplies of weapons • This need helped the economy • Pulled the US out of the Great Depression • Lots of changes took place between 1941-1945

  28. War Effort at Home • The work force was mobilized to produce war supplies • Factories stayed open around the clock • 3 eight hour shifts • 1944: US was making 90,000 planes a year • End of the war: • Over 70,000 ships • 44 billion bullets • 2.5 million army trucks

  29. War Effort at Home • US made more materials than all of the Axis powers put together • Too old for factory work? • Knitted sweaters and socks • Worked for the Red Cross • Planted victory gardens • Too young? • Saved $.10 a week to buy a war bond (in bond books)

  30. Mobilizing the Economy • Government set up many agencies to direct the war effort • Fuel agency – had to get fuel to armed forces • Encouraged civilians to reduce their fuel consumption • Wage-and-price agency – controlled food prices and workers’ pay • No prices or wages were raised during the war • Rationing began to be used

  31. Mobilizing the Economy • Rationing began to be used • Coupons were used to buy “hard to get” products • Meat • Sugar • Butter • Coffee • Clothing was scarce – cloth was needed to make uniforms

  32. Opportunities for Women • Women = 1/3 of the work force • Before: workers were young and unmarried • Now: workers were more married than unmarried • Many over the age of 35 • Women had a new sense of freedom • “Rosie the Riveter” – stood for all women workers • Took on new responsibilities

  33. Opportunities for Women • Took on new responsibilities • Served in the armed forces in great numbers… all branches had separate women’s units • Worked in military offices so that more men could serve in battle • Flew supply planes so men could fly fighters and bombers • Served as nurses… often lived under same dangerous conditions as soldiers • Women were important… • But paid 40% less than men

  34. African Americans & the War • 27 million Americans moved during the war • African Americans moved to cities in the Northeast, Midwest, West coast • Many changes for African Americans • Left low paying jobs for better paying jobs • Roosevelt signed an order for fair treatment in defense plants

  35. African Americans & the War • Service: • Almost a millions African Americans served • Still faced discrimination • Given jobs as cooks, waiters, workers in supply units • Still wanted to be a part of the fighting • Tuskegee Airmen: African American fighter pilots • Carried out missions • Protected bombers flying over Europe • Shot down 103 planes, destroyed 298 enemy planes

  36. Latinos & the War • More Latinos volunteered for service than any other group • Still faced discrimination • 300,000 Latinos served • Most were Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans • 1 in 4 Bataan Death march men were Mexican Americans • Worked on the home front, also • Worked as farm / railroad workers • Shipyard worked in factories • Fought two battles: prejudice & the Axis powers

  37. Japanese Americans • Americans feared Japanese might help Japan • 1942: Army ordered to take Japanese Americans to internment camps • Also known as relocation camps • > 100,000 Japanese Americans had to give up their • Homes • Farms • businesses

  38. Japanese Americans • Japanese Americans still volunteered for service • Served in segregated units • No reason to believe Japanese Americans were disloyal • Years and years later – government paid Japanese for the loss of their property • 10% of their losses • Apology given

  39. To Do • Pg. 418 (1-3) – complete sentences • Exercise 95 – complete sentences

  40. 22.4: Winning the War

  41. Terms • Holocaust: the mass murder of millions of Jews by the Nazis • Genocide: the planned murder of an entire people • Atomic bomb: a nuclear bomb with enormous power to harm

  42. The Ending… • German and Japanese forces were pushed back to their homelands • Holocaust was still happening • More deaths • Atomic bomb ends the war • More deaths

  43. The D-Day Invasion • Needed: an Allied invasion of Europe • 6 month preparation • Eisenhower planned the invasion • Later led troops to victory in Europe • Germans expected an invasion • Planted land mines • Put up barbed wire to stand in the way of troops • D-day: June 6, 1944

  44. The D-Day Invasion • D-day: June 6, 1944 • 170,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel • Landed at Normandy (France) • Tons of supplies and new soldiers arrived to fight • Allies had tricked Hitler: • Sent his best soldiers to a different location

  45. The End of the War • Allies began bombing German cities all of the time • December 1944: Nazis made one final attack • Allies forced troops to retreat to Berlin • Millions of Allied soldiers closed in on Germany • May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered • Side-note: rather than be captured…Hitler committed suicide

  46. The Holocaust • As Allied troops moved through Germany… • Found evidence of the Holocaust • Jewish people were blamed for Germany’s problems • “Final Solution” = genocide • Death camps were built w/gas chambers • Thousands were killed daily • Bodies burned in ovens • Buried in mass graves

  47. The Holocaust • Jewish people were also murdered • Troops had heard reports / few believed them • “seeing is believing” – people were horrified • Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes • Nuremburg Trials • 12 Nazi leaders were sentenced to death

  48. Victory over Japan • After Europe was save, everyone turned to Japan • Allied forces had retaken the Philippines • General MacArthur had returned / kept his promise • Allies did not want to attack Japan directly • Millions of lives could be lost • Instead, bombed Japan’s cities • Caused lots of destruction