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  1. Today • Phonological rules • How to solve a phonology problem • Work a problem Readings: 4.3-4.5

  2. /Phonemic/ representation ↓ Phonological rules ↓ [Phonetic] representation Phonological rules are responsible for the mapping between the phonemic and phonetic (AKA allophonic) levels.

  3. Phonological rules • Account for predictable properties of pronunciation • Have 3 parts: • A) sound(s) that undergo the rule • B) result of the rule • C) environment where the rule applies A  B / C “A becomes B in the environment C”

  4. Distinctive feature Natural classes • A group of sounds, which have a particular feature (or combination of features) in common, that are treated as a group by the phonology e.g., labial consonants low vowels Or [+labial] [+low] [p, b, m, w, w8, f, v] [a, Q]

  5. Natural Classes May be broad … all glides, liquids, nasals, and vowels = [+sonorant] all stops and fricatives = [-sonorant] all consonants = [+ consonantal] all vowels = [-consonantal]

  6. Natural Classes or narrow… all high vowels = [+ high, - consonantal] all voiceless consonants = [- voiced, +consonantal] voiceless labial stops = [-voi, + labial] A distinctive feature is that property of sound that is the least common denominatordescribing the set.It must apply to all and only the members of the set.

  7. Problems in phonology • What are the phonemes of a given language? How are they distributed?

  8. How to solve a phonology problem • Some diagnostic tests… 1. Minimal pairsare our test for contrastive distribution (allophones of different phonemes) 2. Predictability is our test for complementary distribution (allophones of the same phoneme)

  9. [pi8san] [dupu8kda] [pu8ko] [ki8sa] [su8pwo] [kamwki8ti] [uduk] [kaskas] [poki] [pil] [apid] [iju] Mokilese 0.0, p. 124 What are the high vowel phonemes?

  10. [pi8san] [uduk] [dupu8kda] [kaskas] [pu8ko] [poki] [ki8sa] [pil] [su8pwo] [apid] [kamwki8ti] [iju] i8 p_s k_s k_t environment Distribution of Sounds u8 p_k s_p i __# p_l p_d #__ u d_p #__ d_k __# ‘#’ = word boundary

  11. [i8] occurs… btw. voiceless consonants [u8] occurs… btw. voiceless cons. No natural class can be used to define where [i], [u] occur i8 p_s k_s k_t 1. Look at environments to find natural classes u8 p_k s_p i __# p_l p_d #__ u d_p #__ d_k __#

  12. [i] does not occur where [i8] does, and vice versa [u] does not occur where [u8] does, and vice versa THUS… [i8] and [i] are in comple-mentary distribution [u8] and [u] are too i8 p_s k_s k_t 2. Look for gaps in environments u8 p_k s_p i __# p_l p_d #__ u d_p #__ d_k __#

  13. 3. State generalizations “[i] and [u] are voiceless… …when they occur between voiceless consonants.” “[i] and [u] are voiced… …elsewhere.” Question: Is the Mokilese rule a voicing rule or a devoicing rule?

  14. 4. Determine identity of the phonemes and their allophones • Which is the basic and which is the restricted allophone(s)? • Restricted (‘Derived’): occurs in simplest set of environments • Basic: occurs in wider, more complex set of environments • Basic allophone is assumed to be the phoneme, restricted allophone is predicted by the rule. • Phonemes: voiced high vowels /i/ /u/ • Restricted allophones: voiceless high vowels [i8] [u8]

  15. Mokilese rule “/i/ and /u/ become [i8] and [u8] between voiceless consonants” or... “High vowels become voiceless between voiceless consonants”

  16. Summary 1) List the phonetic environments 2) State the environments in terms of natural classes 3) Are the environments the same or non-overlapping? • Same: Contrastive distribution (allophones of different phonemes) e.g., [i] vs. [u] • Non-overlapping: Complementary distribution (allophones of the same phoneme) e.g., [i8]vs. [i] 4) Identify the basic vs. restricted allophone(s)