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Italian History (slides) by F. G. restauration. Restauration of old princes after Napoleon (1815-1848), age of the Holy Alliance, first attempts of independence. austria. Austria, or the Habsburg Empire, the enemy of Italian independence, the plurinational

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restauration
restauration

Restauration of old princes after Napoleon (1815-1848),

age of the Holy Alliance, first attempts of independence

austria
austria

Austria, or the Habsburg Empire, the enemy

of Italian independence, the plurinational

monarchy, the catholic power

prince of Metternich

mazzini
mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini (1815-72), political thinker, conspirator,

leader of the republican and democratic wing of Risorgimento,

Founder of “Giovane Italia” and “Giovane Europa”

sardinia
sardinia

House of Savoy, kingdom of Sardinia, Piedmont

King Carlo Alberto

Turin

slide6
1848

1848, the spring of nations, the Manifesto of communists,

first war of independence, the “Statuto albertino” in Piedmont,

victory of Austria (1849), king Carlo Alberto abdicates to the throne.

Karl Marx

vitt ema ii
vitt ema II

Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy (1820-1878), “ il re galantuomo”,

king of Sardinia, fist king of united Italy, hunter, lover.

cavour
cavour

Camillo Benso, count of Cavour (1810-61), Piedmontese, liberal,

the prime minister of Vittorio Emanuele II who united Italy

war of Crimea

garibaldi
garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82), the “hero of the two worlds”,

General, patriot, republican, socialist, writer, lover,

conqueror of Naples and Sicily (for the Savoy)

slide10
1861

1860. II war of independence. The French ally. Austria defeated

Italy unites. The kingdom of Italy (March 1861). Rome missing?

Napoleon III

Cavour dies

south

The Mezzogiorno. North and South. Bandits or rebels?

south

Garibaldi gives the South to the King of Italy

florence

Florence capital of Italy (1864-70).

The “destra storica”, a liberal ruling class

florence

Baron B. Ricasoli Marco Minghetti

slide13

1866. Third war of independence. The Prussian ally.

Kingdom of Prussia winner in the Austro-Prussian war.

Italy defeated both at sea and on the field. Veneto to Italy.

1866

battle of Custoza

General La Marmora

Otto von Bismarck

battle of Lissa

slide14

1870. Rome to Italy. End of papal state.

Napoleon III defeated by Bismarck

1871. Declaration of German Reich.

1870
pio ix
pio IX

Pius IX. The prisoner Pope. The infallible Pope. The Pope of Syllabus. The enemy of Savoy and liberalism

depretis
depretis

1876-87. The “sinistra storica” to power.

“Trasformismo?”

Agostino Depretis (1813-87)

slide17
1882

1882. The conservative alliance. Austria, Germany and Italy.

Rivalry with France on North Africa.

crispi
crispi

Francesco Crispi(1818-1901, Sicilian statesman, prime minister,

former republican, crushed first social movements in Sicily,

tried to conquer colonies to Italy in Africa

The “fasci” siciliani

socialism
socialism

The “fourth Estate” / 1892: Italian socialist party

colonies

Italian colonialism

1890. Erithrea and Somalia

Adua 1896. Italian army defeated by ras Menelik

1911-12. Italy conquers Lybia

Italy: a late joiner?

colonies
emigration
emigration

End of XIX century – first decades of XX: mass emigration

1913: 900.000 left Italy to America and Europe

slide22

1898. Political crisis. People killed in Milan by soldiers.

1900. King Umberto I

killed by anarchist anarchist

1898
giolitti
giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti. Statesman, Piedmontese,

the man of compromise

social unrest

1913. Universal suffrage (for men)

1914. Social unrest. The “red week”

social unrest

Gabriele

D’Annunzio

The “vate”

slide26

1915-18. Italy joins France and Great Britain, or the fourth war of independence.Trent and Triest. 600.000 soldiers dead

war
orlando
orlando

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (1860-1952), Sicilian statesman and jurist, the “president of victory”. Italy triumphant but..

D’Annunzio:

a “mutilated

victory?”

slide28

Italy 1920-21.The “biennio rosso”.

1921: Italian Communist Party founded

reds

Antonio Gramsci

Vladimir Lenin

slide29
duce

Benito Mussolini, the “duce” of fascism

1922. Fascism at power

empire

May 1936 (XIV).

Conquest of Ethiopia.

The Italian Empire

empire