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Chapters 4 and 5

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  1. Chapters 4 and 5 • Motherboard/processors/memory • Printers

  2. Form Factor Considerations • Motherboards, cases, and power supplies come in two major forms: • ATX Styles (full size and mini) • Directly supports onboard usb, parallel, serial, hdd, and fdd connections • Designed so a single fan assembly can cool everything • Requires 20-pin power feed • Software on/off • Mini DIN-6 for mouse/kb • AT Styles (full size, mini, and baby) • Full DIN-5 for kb • P8/p9 connectors for power • Hardware on/off • Variable onboard support for I/O

  3. Major PC components • CPU • BIOS/CMOS • Clock Generator and Interval Timer • Bus Controllers • Northbridge (memory controller) • Southbridge (PCI to ISA host bridge) • Enhanced I/O controller (ISA to LPT, COM, and FDD) • Interrupt Controller and Interrupt Cascade Controller • Assists in CPU-controlled communications between devices and memory • DMA Controller • Assists in direct communications between devices and memory • Keyboard and Serial Controllers

  4. System Bus Speeds • Processors • Between 50 MHz and 2.2GHz • Front-side (CPU to Northbridge, and IDE) • 33, 66, 100, and 133 MHz • Back-side (PCI and ISA busses) • PCI: 33m 44m and 66 MHz • ISA: 8MHz

  5. Expansion Bus Slots • PC-BUS (XT ISA): 8-bit • AT ISA: 16-bit • EISA: 32-bit • VESA Local Bus: 32-bit • PCI: 32/64-bit

  6. AT Connectors

  7. ATX Board Connectors

  8. Drive Connectors

  9. Pentium (P5) • Bus speed (50MHz, 60MHz & 66MHz) • Generations: • P5/Socket 5 • 60 or 66 MHz • Voltage (3.3V) • 273 pin socket • P54C/Socket 7 • 75-166 MHz • Voltage (3.3V) • 296 pin ZIF • Pentium MMX/P55C/Super 7 • Clock speed (166-233MHz) • Voltage (2.8V) • 321 pin ZIF

  10. Pentium Pro (P6) • Bus speed (60MHz & 66MHz) • Clock speed (150-200MHz) • Voltage (3.1V-3.3V) • Socket 8 • L2 cache • 256-512KB • On the PGA unit • Full Clock Speed

  11. Celeron • Bus speed (66MHz) • Clock speed (266-766MHz) • Voltage (1.5V-2.8V) • Slot 1 (SEPP), Socket 370 & FC-PGA 370 • L2 cache • 128KB • On the chip • Full Clock Speed

  12. Pentium II • Bus speed (66MHz & 100MHz) • Clock speed (233-450MHz) • Voltage (2.0V-2.8V) • Slot 1 (SECC) • L2 cache • 512KB • On the chip • Half Clock Speed

  13. Pentium III • Bus speed (100MHz & 133MHz) • Clock speed (450-1000MHz) • Voltage (1.6V-2.05V) • Slot 1 (SECC2), FC-PGA 370 • L2 cache • 512KB Half Clock Speed • “E” Version / 256KB Full Clock Speed

  14. AMD Microprocessors • K5 (equivalent to Pentium) • Socket 7 • K6/K6-2 (equivalent to Pentium MMX) • Socket 7 & Super 7 • K6Plus-3D (equivalent to Pentium Pro) • Socket A • L2 cache • 256KB • On the chip • Full Clock Speed

  15. AMD Athlon • Athlon K7 • Bus speed (200MHz) • Clock speed (550-950MHz) • L2 cache (512KB Half Clock Speed) • Slot A • Athlon Thunderbird • Bus speed (200MHz) • Clock speed (700-1200MHz) • L2 cache (256KB Full Clock Speed) • Socket A

  16. AMD Duron • Bus speed (200MHz) • Clock speed (600-850MHz) • Voltage (1.6V) • L2 cache • 64KB • Full Clock Speed • Socket A

  17. Cyrix • M II (equivalent to P5) • Bus speed (100MHz) • Clock speed (300-433MHz) • Socket 7 • M III (equivalent to Celeron) • Bus speed (133MHz) • Clock speed (500-700MHz) • Socket 370

  18. Legacy Sockets • Socket 7 (321-pins) • Intel P5, AMD K6, Cyrix MII • Super 7 (321-pins) • Intel P5MMX, AMD K6-2 • Socket 8 (387-pins) • Pentium Pro • Socket 370 • Intel Celeron & PIII, Cyrix MIII

  19. Current Sockets • FC-PGA • Socket 370 modified for new heatsink fans • Intel Celeron & PIII, Cyrix MIII • Socket A (462-pins) • AMD Athlon K75/Thunderbird & Duron • Socket 423 • Intel Pentium 4 • Socket 478 • Intel Pentium 4 • New 0.13 micron copper architecture

  20. Slots • Slot 1 • 242-connectors • Intel Celeron & Pentium III • Slot 2 • 330-connectors • Intel Xeon • Slot A • 242-connectors (reversed from Slot 1) • AMD Athlon K7

  21. CPU Frontside Bus Speeds CPU Speed Bus Clock Bus Multiplier P75, 100 50MHz 1.5, 2 P90, 120, 150 60 1.5, 2, 2.5 P100, 133, 166, 200 66 MMX 166, 200, 233 66 Ppro 66 P2/233, 333 66 P2/333, 450 100 P3 100-133 P4 133 K6/2 66 K6/3 100 Duron 200 Athlon 200

  22. Memory Systems • Classes of Volatile Memory: • Static Memory (SRAM) • Transistorized • High speed • Higher cost • Used for video and cache • Types: • Asynchronous • Synchronous • Pipeling • Burst-Mode • Dynamic Memory (DRAM) • Capacitor based, needs constant refreshing of signal imprint • Lower cost • Used for main system storage

  23. Enhanced DRAM Types • Enhanced DRAM (EDRAM) • Integrates SRAM into the component for a 40% performance improvement • Used for L2 Cache • Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) • Employs clock signals to organize memory requests • Allows the processor to do other duties while the data is being organized in memory • Enhanced Data Out (EDO) memory • An advanced type of Fast Page Mode Dram • Increases speed by eliminating wait time between issuing memory address requests by not turning off data pins between bus cycles. Thus, successive accesses of an address can occur using 2 clock cycles instead of 3.

  24. DRAM Modules • Chips • Must be used in groups of 9 • 8 memory • 1 parity • SIPPS/SIMMS • 30 pin • 72 pin • Must be used in pairs • DIMMS • 168 pin • Can be used singly

  25. CMOS Main Menu

  26. CMOS Drive Setup

  27. CMOS Features Setup

  28. CMOS PnP/PCI Setup

  29. Printers • Divided in two ways • Feed Types • Friction Feed • Tractor Feed • Printing Methods • Daisy Wheel/Impact • Dot Matrix • Ink Jet Matrix • Ink Jet Continuous Stream • Laser

  30. Friction Feed Printers

  31. Tractor Feed

  32. Daisy Wheel Printhead

  33. Dot-Matrix Characters

  34. Dot-Matrix Pin Layouts

  35. Dot-Matrix Printer Components

  36. Inkjet Application Methods

  37. Continuous Stream Printing

  38. Inkjet Printer Components

  39. Laser Printing Process • A photosensitive drum is given a negative charge. A laser beam creates positive-charge spots on the drum. Negatively-charged toner is attracted to the positive spots on the drum. Paper is then run past the drum, transferring the toner to the paper. The paper is then pressed and heated, fusing the toner to the paper. • The order of events in Laser Printing: • Cleaning • Lamps shine on the drum, neutralizing any residual charge and getting rid of the last image • Conditioning • The primary corona wire creates the negative charge on the drum • Writing • The laser writes the page image on the drum by positively charging some areas of the drum. • Developing • The developer roller of the toner cartridge expels toner onto the drum past a restricting plate. The toner sticks to the positive-charged areas of the drum; the excess is removed from the drum by a wiper blade and returned to the cartridge • Transferring • The transfer corona wire pulls the remaining toner off the drum and onto the paper as the paper is run past the drum. • Fusing • A fusing roller melts the toner onto the paper

  40. Laser Printer Operations

  41. Toner Transfer to Drum Image

  42. Image Transfer Process

  43. Paper Tray

  44. Common Printer Connectors

  45. 36-Pin Centronics Connector

  46. Dot-Matrix Printer Ribbon

  47. Inkjet Printer Cartridge

  48. HP Type Laser Printer Toner Cartridge

  49. Servicing Printers • Ink Jet printers • Ink cartridges • Installation • Clogs • Ink quantity/quality • Print head movement • Laser Printers • Jams • Pickup area • Registration area • Fusing area • Toner availability • Stains on paper • Dust on paper • General • Power • Paper availability and advancement • I/O Connection • POST tests • Dot Matrix printers • Dip switches • Auto line/page feeds • Character sets and codes • Font/pitch • Form lengths • Ribbon • Print Head alignment/movement

  50. Printhead Alignment