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Ancient China. History IDs. Yin-Yang – relates to the opposites found in nature and how they relate to each other. Nature consists of contrasts meeting in harmony.

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history ids
History IDs
  • Yin-Yang – relates to the opposites found in nature and how they relate to each other. Nature consists of contrasts meeting in harmony.
  • Mandate of Heaven – Kings must be powerful, but they must use the power to care for the welfare of the lands and the people entrusted to them.
  • Dialects- different forms of the same language.
  • Confucianism- The ideas of Confucius. He believed Moral values are important
  • Daoism/Taoism- A religion which stressed living in harmony with the dao, the guiding force of all reality.
  • Legalism- The belief that people were bad by nature and need to be controlled
  • Great Wall of China- A barrier across China’s northern frontier, 1,500 miles long.
  • Silk Road- 4,000 mile long network of trade routes between China and the Mediterranean Sea (Roman Empire)
  • Settled by the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangzi River)
  • Natural Barriers

A. Gobi Desert – north

B. Himalaya Mtns. –


C. Pacific Ocean - east

  • Silk Road – most famous trade route

A. 4,000 mile long network of routes

B. Ended at the Mediterranean Sea

C. People traveled in groups for protection

D. Weather presented dangers

E. Traded with Rome for silver, gold, precious

stones and horses

F. Silk made China wealthy

  • Xia Dynasty – 2200 B.C.
  • Shang Dynasty – 1500 B.C.
  • Zhou Dynasty – 1100 B.C.

A. Warring states period

1. No strong government

B. Ideas to help warring states

1. Confucianism – taught morals

2. Daoism – taught to live simply and quietly,

attempting to live in harmony with the forces

of nature rather than struggle against them.

3. Legalism – strict rules, harsh punishments, control


Qin Dynasty – 221 B.C.

A. Qin Shi Huangdi – leader

B. Followed Legalism philosophy

C. Unified China

D. Built Great Wall of China to protect China from

invaders and to keep people in

E. Country fell to civil war after Qin Shi Hurangdi’s


  • Han Dynasty – lasted 400 years

A. Liu Bang first emperor

B. Wu Ti next emperor

1. Confucianism official government

2. Started a University to teach Confucianism ideas

  • Confucianism

A. Started by Confucius in 551 – 479 B.C.

B. Taught ethics (doing the right thing), moral values

(act decently) and to be respectful and loyal to


C. Kings should lead by example and show subjects

good behavior

D. Teachings about Family – respect elders, disobeying parents

was a crime, Father was head of the family, Woman’s role was

to obey her husband

  • Daoism/Taoism

A. Laozi was most famous teacher

B. Stressed living in harmony with nature

C. Universe is a balance of opposites that should be in

harmony with each other



A. Spread from India along the Silk Road

B. Offered rebirth and relief from suffering

C. Many Chinese became Buddhist monks and nuns

  • Legalism

A. Hung Wu – first Ming emperor was cruel and vicious

instead of following teachings of Confucius

B. Believed that the nature of man was essentially evil

and therefore the only way to have order was to

force people to obey the laws.

C. Strict rules and punishments – death by beheading,

drowning, and being buried alive.

society and culture
  • Shang Dynasty

A. Social order – Nobles, Artisans, Farmers, Slaves

  • Zhou Dynasty

A. Social order – Kings (had power from heaven), Lords

and warriors, peasants

  • Han Dynasty

A. Social order – 4 classes

1. Upper Class – Emperor, his court, scholars

2. Second Class – (largest) Peasants

3. Artisans – made daily life items and luxury goods

4. Merchants – lowest (some wealthy and powerful)

science and technology
  • Shang Dynasty

A. China’s first writing system – over 2000 symbols

B. Bronze containers

C. Jade axes, knives, ornaments

D. Military chariots, bows, armor

E. Calendar based on moon cycles

II. Han Dynasty

A. Expert figure painters

B. Poetry – Fu and Shi styles

C. Paper – made by grinding plant fibers into a paste

D. Sundial

E. Seismograph

F. Acupuncture

G. Master Iron workers

H. Silk

1. only Chinese women knew the procedure and revealing it was punishable by