KINGDOM PLANTAE. Chapters 29 & 30. Kingdom: PLANTAE. Characteristics. Multicellular Mostly photosynthetic, contain chlorophyll and other pigments - some parasitic or carnivorous Cell walls made of cellulose Food stored as starch
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Chapters 29 & 30
They are common pond dwellers.
Female – ovule
Male – Pollen grain
Non-vascular Plants – Short, live close to the ground in moist soil. Produce spores. No true leaves or roots.
Sometimes all these 3 non-vascular divisions are collectively called BRYOPHYTES
Division Heptophyta (Liverworts)
Division Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
Division Bryophyta (Mosses)
Need rainwater so flagellated sperm from antheridia can swim to the eggs in the archegonia. MOSSES ARE HOMOSPOROUS – one spore type creates both male and female gametophytes.
Vascular Seedless Plants – Produce spores for reproduction
Division Psilotophyta (Whisk Ferns)
Division Sphenophyta (Horsetails)
Division Lycophyta (Club Mosses)
Division Pterophyta (Ferns)
Like mosses, ferns have flagellated sperm that rely on water to swim from antheridium to archegonium
FERNS ARE HOMOSPOROUS
Vascular Seed Plants – Produce seeds for reproduction
(Also known as gymnosperms)
Division Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos)
Oldest trees on Earth. Existed during the time of the dinosaurs.
Division Coniferophyta (Conifers)
All evergreens: Firs, Cedars, Junipers, etc.
Gymnosperms are heterosporous
Vascular Seed, Flowering Plants – Produce seeds for reproduction
Seeds encased in ovaries – Division Anthophyta or Angiosperms
Two types of flowering plants:
Male gametophyte or pollen
(came from the male microspore)
(Later divides into 2 sperm cells)
Female gametophyte or ovule
(came from the female macrospore)
The radicle is the first part of the embryo to push out of the seed. This will be the first root. The hypocotyl is the lower section of the stem and the epicotyl is the upper part or actively growing part of the stem .
Seed germination of seeds depends on imbibition – the absorption of water from the soil, due to the lower water potential in the dry seed.
Alpha-amylase is released by the outer coat of the endosperm, to breakdown the starch stored in the endosperm – food for the growing seedling.