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Bellringer. Who wrote The Communist Manifesto ? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the proletariat?. Chapter 13 Mass Society and Democracy. Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society. The New Urban Environment.

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bellringer
Bellringer
  • Who wrote The Communist Manifesto?
  • Who were the bourgeoisie?
  • Who were the proletariat?
chapter 13 mass society and democracy

Chapter 13Mass Society and Democracy

Section 2

The Emergence of Mass Society

the new urban environment
The New Urban Environment
  • By the end of the 19th century, mass society had emerged, and the concerns of the majority – working class – were important.
  • This change coincided with the growth of cities.
the new urban environment1
B/w 1800 & 1900 the population of London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000.

Urban residents grew from 40% to 80% of the population

London

The New Urban Environment
the new urban environment2
The New Urban Environment
  • Cities grew because of rural migration to urban centers.
  • Lack of jobs in the country and the improvement of living conditions in cities led to this rural migration.
  • Its all about the
the new urban environment3
The New Urban Environment
  • Following the advice of urban social reformers, city gov’t created boards of health to improve the quality of housing.
  • Medical officers and other officials inspected the buildings for public health hazards.
the new urban environment4
The New Urban Environment
  • Essential to public health of the modern European city were clean water and proper sewage systems.
  • A system of dams, reservoirs, aqueducts, and tunnels provided the water.
social structure of mass society
Social Structure of Mass Society
  • Even through the rising standard of living after 1870, great poverty remained.
  • Also, several middle-class groups existed b/w the few rich and many poor.
the new elite
The New Elite
  • A wealthy elite made up 5% of European society
  • Controlled up to 40% of the wealth
  • The aristocratic and upper middle class members of the elite were gov’t and military leaders.
  • Marriage sometimes served to unite these 2 groups.
the middle classes
The Middle Classes
  • The middle class included:
    • Lawyers
    • Doctors
    • Members of civil service
    • Engineers
    • Scientist
the middle classes1
The Middle Classes
  • Beneath the solid middle class was a lower middle class:
    • Shopkeepers
    • Secretaries
    • Clerk
the middle classes2
The Middle Classes
  • The European middle class was identified with certain values, which it preached to others:
    • Hard work – paid off with enough labor
    • Churchgoers – moral way of doing things
  • This gave way to etiquette books such as The Habits of Good Society.
the working class
The Working Class
  • Made up 80% of European population.
  • Included
    • Skilled artisans
    • Semi-skilled laborers
    • Unskilled laborers – day laborers & domestic servants
urban worker
Urban Worker
  • Life improved after 1870 due to:
    • Reforms
    • Rising wages
    • Lower prices
  • Could even afford some leisure activities, and strikes were leading to 10 hour workdays and Saturday afternoons off.
the experiences of women
The Experiences of Women
  • In 1800 family roles defined women.
  • Women were legally inferior to and economically dependent on men.

The good ole’ days!

new job opportunities
New Job Opportunities
  • The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women.
  • Many worked as low-paid, white collar workers.
    • Secretaries
    • Clerks
    • Typists
marriage and family
Marriage and Family
  • Throughout the 1800s marriage was the only honorable and available career for most women.
  • However, the birthrate did drop due to better economic conditions and birth control.
  • First birth control clinic opened in Amsterdam in 1882.
marriage and family1
Marriage and Family
  • Middle-class family fostered the idea of family togetherness.
  • Victorians created the family Christmas.
  • By the 1850s, Fourth of July celebrations in the U.S. had changed from wild celebrations to family picnics.
the movement for women s rights
The Movement for Women’s Rights
  • Modern feminism, the movement for women’s rights, began during the Enlightenment.
  • The movement in the 1800s began with a fight for the right of women to own property.
the movement for women s rights1
The Movement for Women’s Rights
  • Women sought access to universities and traditionally male fields of employment.
  • ****Don’t Write****
  • This was shown by the women leaders in various fields as you will see on the next few slides: Hold your breath because here they are!
amalie sieveking
Amalie Sieveking
  • Entered the medical field by becoming a nurse.
  • Founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick
emmeline pankhurst
She and her daughters founded the Women’s Social and Political Union.

Its members chained themselves to lampposts, pelted politicians with eggs, and smashed windows.

Emmeline Pankhurst
pankhurst and suffrage
Pankhurst and Suffrage
  • Suffragists – people who wanted the vote extended to all adults – believed in the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state.
universal education
Universal Education
  • U.E. was a product of mass society of the late 19th century and early 20th centuries.
  • B/w 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to set up state-sponsored primary schools.
  • Children 6-12 were required to attend.
  • States trained teachers
  • 1st female colleges were teacher-training institutes.
universal education1
Universal Education
  • The reason for a commitment to public education was?????

INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • The chief motive for education?????

POLITICAL

universal education2
Universal Education
  • Extending the right to vote called for a better-educated public.
  • Primary schools instilled patriotism.
universal education3
Universal Education
  • Increased education increased literacy, or the ability to read. (Which is why you can read this!)
  • In countries where there was no universal education (Russia, Serbia for example) 80% could not read.
  • Increased literacy helped spread newspapers.
new forms of leisure
New Forms of Leisure
  • The leisure allowed by the Second Ind. Rev. entertained people and distracted them from the realities of their work lives.
new forms of leisure1
New Forms of Leisure
  • Amusement Parks gave people new experiences and showed them new technology.
  • Team sports developed.
  • Public transportation allowed the working class to attend games and other leisure venues.
review
Review
  • 1. Cities grew because of rural migration to ___.
  • 2. Who made up 5% of European cities?
  • 3. What were the job opportunities for women in the Second Industrial Revolution?
  • 4. What was the movement for women’s rights?
end of section 2

End of Section 2

Next: Section 3

The National State And Democracy