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Poisoning. Poisoning. Acute toxicity Acute, short, severe course, adverse effects occurring within a short time of administration of a single dose or multiple doses given within 24 hours. Such as an overdose of a drug. Poisoning. Chronic toxicity

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poisoning1
Poisoning
  • Acute toxicity
    • Acute, short, severe course, adverse effects occurring within a short time of administration of a single dose or multiple doses given within 24 hours. Such as an overdose of a drug.
poisoning2
Poisoning
  • Chronic toxicity
    • Adverse effect occurring due to long-term exposure. Exposure is repeated to a particular substance, which may then accumulate or cause a cumulative toxic effect. May apply to an event, which occurs many weeks, months or years after exposure.
poisons
Poisons
  • Telephone instructions – give first aid information and advise owner to remove from toxic exposure.
  • Serious illness. If animal seriously ill advise owner to seek veterinary care immediately
  • Poison label. If exposed to known poison/ toxin, check for ingredients, antidotes and dosage.
  • Take packaging to clinic.
what can you do
What can you do?
  • Time of exposure. Estimate time animal ate or was exposed to poison.
  • Identify the poison
    • Try and establish the identity of the toxin through history, clinical signs or any suspicions the owner may have. If the poison is known then treatment can be planned according. If the toxin is corrosive or petroleum-based do not induce vomiting.
dealing with poison exposures
Dealing with poison exposures
  • Eliminate exposure – may need to remove animal from environment
  • Remove toxin – bathe if external; emesis MAY be indicated, enemas may be helpful
  • Binding agent (activated charcoal) may be used to bind toxin still in gut
  • Administer antidote if there is one
  • TLC
poisons1
Poisons
  • Dilution of caustic (burns) poisons
    • If a caustic compound has been ingested then dilution with milk, egg white or water can be helpful. Do not try to neutralize it.
  • Dilution can lead to vomiting and cause tissue damage.
induced vomiting emesis
Induced Vomiting (emesis)
  • Avoid advising induction of emesis/vomiting to clients over the phone.
  • Salt and washing soda as emetics cause electrolyte imbalances and gastric and esophageal ulceration.
vomiting emesis
Vomiting (emesis)
  • Contraindications for inducing emesis.
    • Light petroleum products such as gasoline and cleaning fluids can easily be inhaled into the lungs (aspirated)
    • May cause aspiration pneumonia which can be life threatening.
    • Caustic substances (strong alkali or acids) will burn oesophagus
vomiting emesis1
Vomiting (emesis)
  • DO NOT do if
    • animal unconscious or severely depressed.
    • If gag reflex ineffective.
    • If the animal has seizures or there is a risk of seizures or central nervous system excitation.
  • Adverse effects of apomorphine include excessive vomiting, mental depression, respiratory depression, and/or hyperactivity (CATS).
home remedies
Home remedies
  • Emetics administered by the owner
    • Valuable time may be lost if owners decide to induce vomiting at home. Careful consideration should be given before recommending this.
    • Products around the home can be used but are not as effective as apomorphine.
other first aid conditions
Other First Aid Conditions
  • Conjunctivitis or eye injuries
  • Stings
  • Ear (aural) Hematoma
  • Fish Hook (lip/mouth/skin)
  • Abcesses and bites
  • Drowning
  • Fit/Convulsion
  • Heat Stroke
  • Vomiting and Diarrhoea
slide25
Eyes
  • For severe eye injuries – moisten cloth or swab preferably with sterile saline (human first aid kit), loosely cover over eye (care not to damage eye) and bandage. Need to get to vet ASAP.
horses feet
Horses feet
  • Any injury to this, there is a risk of swelling inside the hoof
  • Must keep cool – stand in stream, bucket or run hose water over them immediately to prevent tissue death
other scenarios
Other Scenarios

What would you do???

pig dog has been attacked by pig and is hemorrhaging
Pig dog has been attacked by pig and is hemorrhaging
  • Client usually out in bush at time of call and will take 3-4 hours to get to clinic!!
  • Advise first aid – pull skin back over wound where possible and dress with whatever is available. Gladwrap is good to put directly on wound first as it is clean and keeps in moisture and then shirts or whatever over the top.
  • Many pig dog owners will have already sutured the wound!! Still need to come to clinic for cleaning, debridement and surgical suturing to ensure a good result.
puppy has just been seen eating rat bait
Puppy has just been seen eating rat bait
  • Immediately to vet, identify particular poison if possible (get client to bring the box and try to estimate how much has been eaten and at what time)
cat with scalded burnt paws
Cat with scalded/burnt paws
  • Cool burn – 10mins cool running water if tolerated
  • Keep cat warm cat and get to the vet
  • Note – pure aloe gel has been shown to help healing of burns
dog with distended tight abdomen
Dog with distended tight abdomen
  • This is probably a gastric torsion. Client needs to get to vet asap – no time to lose.
dog has been straining to have puppies for 1 hour with no pups yet
Dog has been straining to have puppies for 1 hour with no pups yet
  • Need to ask questions about what type of straining, how long since first stage etc (see parturition notes) but essentially this dog needs to come to vet asap for examination and possible C-section