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Information Resources Management

Information Resources Management

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Information Resources Management

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  1. Information Resources Management January 16, 2001

  2. Agenda • Administrivia • Course Overview • Database Management Systems (DBMSs) • Homework #1

  3. Administrivia • Syllabus • Book • Homework • Web Page

  4. Course Calendar • Eleven Homeworks • Approximately one per week • Exams • Midterm 1 - 2/20 • Midterm 2 - 3/20 • Final - TBA • Quizzes • Up to five

  5. Overview – Perspective • Database Design and Implementation • “Business” Perspective • IT professional in an organization

  6. Database Design • Relational Model • Database Modeling • Evaluation Tools • Normalization

  7. Database Implementation • SQL (Structured Query Language) • Dependability, Reliability • Architecture • Distributed Databases

  8. Database Management Systems • Traditional File Processing Systems • Database • Comparison • Database Lifecycles • Database Management System Functions

  9. Traditional File Processing System • Separate Files • Department • Business Function • Independent of Each Other • High Level of Program Dependence • Program contains file structure and location

  10. Example Time Cards Sorted by Employee # Trans Master Data Entry Sort by Employee # Update Master Trans New Master Report Checks

  11. Physical/Internal Logical/Conceptual View/External How data is stored What is stored What is used (subset) Data Abstraction (Views) Traditional file processing prevents this abstraction. Why?

  12. Three Views of Data External (View) Client Customer Programmer Conceptual (Logical) Designer Database Administrator (DBA) Internal (Physical) Database Administrator (DBA) Tech Support

  13. What is Needed • Physical Independence • Logical Independence

  14. Physical Independence • Physical layout and organization of data can be changed without changing either the overall logical structure of the data or the application programs • Examples • Move data location • Move data to faster storage • Change indexing • Add a secondary key

  15. Physical Independence External (View) Conceptual (Logical) Internal (Physical) No Resulting Change Here Change Here

  16. Logical Independence • Non-loss changes to the logical structure can be made without changing application programs or end-user views • Examples • Change format of a field (zip from 5 to 9) • Add a new data field • Add a new table • Divide a table into two

  17. Logical Independence External (View) Conceptual (Logical) Internal (Physical) No Resulting Change Here Change Here Coordinating Change Here

  18. Database • organized collection of logically related data • shared collection of interrelated data designed to meet the informational needs of multiple users • data is independent of program and user views • data is stored with physical and logical independence

  19. Database Management System (DBMS) • Software that facilitates the implementation of the database concept

  20. Comparison(Traditional vs. Database) • Database Advantages/Traditional Disadvantages • program-data dependence • duplication • data sharing • development times • program maintenance – ripple effects • flexibility

  21. Comparison(Traditional vs. Database) • Database Advantages/Traditional Disadvantages • security • data integrity • data as corporate resource

  22. Comparison(Traditional vs. Database) • Traditional Advantages/Database Disadvantages • size • complexity • cost • special hardware • impact of failure • recovery

  23. Comparison(Traditional vs. Database) • Traditional Advantages/Database Disadvantages • additional personnel • conversion costs • organizational conflict

  24. Database Lifecycle 1. Enterprise Modeling 2. Conceptual Data Modeling 3. Logical Database Design 4. Physical Database Design and Creation 5. Database Implementation 6. Database Maintenance

  25. People Involved • Systems analysts & designers • Database analysts & designers • Users • Programmers • Database Administrators (DBAs) • Networking experts • Other technical experts

  26. Database Management System Functions • data storage, retrieval and update • user-accessible catalog • transaction support • concurrency control • recovery services • authorization services • support for data communication

  27. Database Management System Functions • integrity services • types - character, number, etc. • internal validity • services to promote data independence (logical and physical) • utility services

  28. Database Applications • Personal • one user • Workgroup • small team - LAN connected • Department/Division • multiple teams and functions • Enterprise • entire organization

  29. In-Class Exercise • Groups of 4 • Introduce yourself • Identify a possible database of each type • Pick a speaker

  30. In-Class Exercise • Introduce yourself and group members • Give group’s example databases • personal • workgroup • department/division • enterprise

  31. Benefits individualized meet specific needs purchased package Drawbacks limited to no data sharing replicated data consolidation - standardization support Personal Databases

  32. Benefits meet specific needs data shared (across group) customized “views” Drawbacks data sharing across groups replicated data security not optimal for individual DBMS cost & support Workgroup Databases

  33. Benefits meet (specific) needs data shared Drawbacks data sharing replicated data security not optimal for individual/group performance DBMS cost & development Department Databases

  34. Benefits meet needs data shared “mineable” consistent view to customers Drawbacks size & complexity security cost & support development standards & bureaucracy distribution & ownership Enterprise Databases

  35. Best Database? • Personal? • Workgroup? • Department? • Enterprise?

  36. Best Database? • Personal? • Workgroup? • Department? • Enterprise? Combination of databases that meets the needs of individuals, teams, departments, and the company

  37. Best Database? • To the individual, it’s a personal database • To the team, it’s a workgroup database • To the department, it’s a department database • To the CEO, it’s an enterprise database • (To the DBA, it’s a headache)

  38. Homework #1 • Data management recommendation • High-level, experience based • “glossy” vendor material • Show • alternatives • strengths/weaknesses of each • well-reasoned explanation