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Earth’s Structure and Heat Transfer. The Layers of Earth’s Core. There are 7 layers of Earth’s inner workings These layers include crust, upper mantle, transition region, lower mantle, lithosphere, outer core, and the inner core

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the layers of earth s core
The Layers of Earth’s Core
  • There are 7 layers of Earth’s inner workings
  • These layers include crust, upper mantle, transition region, lower mantle, lithosphere, outer core, and the inner core
  • The innermost part of Earth is measured at between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit
the crust

The crust is about 5 miles deep into the Earth from the bottom of the ocean, but 25 miles from the surface of a continent

  • At the deepest part of the Earth’s crust, the temperature is about 1600 degrees Fahrenheit
  • The Earth’s crust is broken into many different plates, which move around on the surface of Earth
The Crust
the lithosphere
The lithosphere
  • The lithosphere is a section of the Earth in which the crust and upper mantle meet
  • The lithosphere is comprised of rigid brittle rock
  • Right beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, which is the portion of the Earth that causes plate movement
transition layer
TRANSITION LAYER
  • The transition layer of Earth is around 250-406 miles deep
  • Made of mainly basaltic magmas, but also contains amounts of calcium, aluminum, and garnet
  • The layer becomes dense when the garnet is cooled, but buoyant and light when it is heated
the upper mantle
THE UPPER MANTLE
  • The upper mantle and lower mantle together make up the largest portion of Earth
  • Both mantles are extremely hot and plastic in texture
  • The upper mantle is made up of olivine and pyroxene
  • This layer is not entirely solid but is also partially liquid
lower mantle

This layer is also sometimes referred to as the D’’ layer

  • The lower mantle is between 660 and 2890 km. deep
  • The lower mantle’s chemical composition consists of silicon, magnesium, and oxygen
  • This layer is also believed to have iron, calcium, and/or aluminum in it
LOWER MANTLE
the outer core
THE OUTER CORE
  • The outer core of Earth is around 125 to 188 miles thick and is sometimes included as part of the lower mantle because of its geographical nature
  • Scientists say that the outer core of Earth is made of mostly iron and nickel
  • This layer of Earth can heat to temperatures between 7,200 and 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit
  • This would normally cause the iron and nickel to melt, but the pressure from the rest of the planet keeps it mostly solid

Lower mantle

the inner core

The inner core is a solid portion of Earth that isn’t physically attached to the mantle, but is suspended by the molten outer core

  • The constant rotational motion of Earth creates electrical currents, giving our planet its magnetic field
  • Scientists also confirmed that 10% of this layer is oxygen and/or sulfur
The INNER CORE
transfer of heat
Transfer of Heat

In the core of the Earth, all three forms of the transfer of heat are used. Radiation from the inner core heats most of the planet, as does conduction from the touching of each layer (excluding the inner core). Convection currents take place inside the outer core and the mantle where the molten magmas move around. Finally, the crust, upper mantle, and transitional layers are all mostly or entirely solid, so heat passes between them from conduction.

temperature and the sun
Temperature and The Sun
  • Our Earth is not only heated by its molten inner core, but also by the distant sun, which radiates heat all the way back to Earth
  • The sun’s heat causes temperature changes in the atmosphere, which is how we feel the different seasons on Earth- because we are either closer or farther away from the sun
  • Earth’s axis is on a tilt of about 23.5degrees, causing one half of the world to be closer to the sun, then rotating away so the other half is in the same position
  • When we absorb energy from the sun, it passes through our atmosphere, causing a loss in heat, before making its way to us on land. In the ocean, it receives even less heat at a time because it must heat a larger body than one section of land
sources cited
Sources Cited
  • http://www.universetoday.com/73597/what-is-lithosphere/
  • http://www.science.nationalgeographic.com
  • http://www.eduweb.com/portfolio/earthsystems/plate_tectonics/tectonics1.html
  • http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_5_0.html
  • http://www.whoi.edu/NobleMetals/Fproject2.html
  • http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Earths_layers/Earths_layers4.html
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/28327/html/universe/solar_system/planets/earth/interior/layers_of_earth.html
sources cited1
Sources Cited
  • http://www.vlab.msi.umn.edu/projects/natLowerMant.shtml
  • http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/core/?ar_a=1
  • http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/oise/pictures/earth/earthcore/