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Signal Processors. Devices that change some characteristic of a sound. Analog Processors. ANALOG PROCESSORS DIRECTLY MODIFY SIGNALS AS THEY ENTER THE DEVICE . Digital Processors.

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signal processors

Signal Processors

Devices that change some characteristic of a sound.

analog processors
Analog Processors
  • ANALOG PROCESSORS DIRECTLY MODIFY SIGNALS AS THEY ENTER THE DEVICE
digital processors
Digital Processors
  • DIGITAL PROCESSORS (DSPs) CONVERT THE INCOMING SIGNAL INTO BINARY LANGUAGE AND ARE THEN PROCESSED BY MATHEMATICALLY RECALCULATING THE DIGITAL CODE ACCORDING TO A ALGORITHM
4 basic categories of processors
4 Basic Categories of Processors
  • SPECTRUM PROCESSORS
  • TIME PROCESSORS
  • AMPLITUDE PROCESSORS
  • NOISE PROCESSORS
spectrum processors
SPECTRUM PROCESSORS
  • AFFECT THE SPECTRAL BALANCE (FREQUENCY/AMPLITUDE RESPONSE PATTERN )
  • CHANGE TIMBRE
  • EXAMPLES: Equalizers and Filters
time processors
TIME PROCESSORS
  • AFFECT THE TIME BETWEEN A SIGNAL AND ITS REPETITIONS
  • CHANGE ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT
  • EXAMPLES: Reverbs and Delays
amplitude processors
AMPLITUDE PROCESSORS
  • AFFECT THE DYNAMIC RANGE
  • CHANGE THE ACOUSTIC ENVELOPE
  • EXAMPLES: Compressors, Limiters, and Noise Gates
noise processors
NOISE PROCESSORS
  • REDUCE ANALOG TAPE HISS
  • EXAMPLES: Dolby and dBx
equalization eq
EQUALIZATION (EQ)
  • PROCESS OF ALTERING THE FREQUENCY/AMPLITUDE RESPONSE PATTERN BY BOOSTING OR ATTENUATING SELECTED FREQUENCIES
  • THE MOST COMMON FORM OF SIGNAL PROCESSING
  • EQUALIZERS ENABLE US TO EXERCISE TONAL OR TIMBRAL CONTROL OVER A SOUND
eq used for
EQ USED FOR:
  • TO OVERCOME RECORDING DEFICIENCIES IN THE ROOM ACOUSTICS, MICROPHONE, OR INSTRUMENT
  • TO ALTER A SOUND FOR CREATIVE REASONS
  • TO AFFECT A BETTER BLEND BETWEEN COMPETING INSTRUMENTS
bell curve eq
BELL CURVE EQ
  • THE EFFECT OF EQ TO FREQUENCIES ADJACENT TO A TARGET FREQUENCY, ALSO CALLED A PEAKING CURVE EQ.

BANDWIDTH: THE RANGE OF FREQUENCIES AFFECTED BY EQ ON EACH SIDE OF THE CENTER FREQUENCY

quality factor q
QUALITY FACTOR (Q)
  • REFERS TO THE WIDTH OF THE AFFECTED BAND
  • HIGH Q VALUE = NARROW BANDWIDTH
  • LOW Q = WIDE BANDWIDTH
shelving eq
SHELVING EQ
  • SIMILAR TO BELL CURVE EQ EXCEPT THAT THE CURVE GENTLY FLATTENS OUT INTO A STRAIGHT LINE
equalizers
EQUALIZERS
  • FIXED FREQUENCY (OR SELECTABLE FREQUENCY) HAS A SET NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES THAT CAN BE MODIFIED AND HAS A SET BANDWIDTH
  • PARAMETRIC HAS A "SWEEP-ABLE" OR CONTINUOUS FREQUENCY SELECT AND A BANDWIDTH THAT IS VARIABLE
  • GRAPHIC EQUALIZER IS A FIXED FREQUENCY EQUALIZER WITH FADER CONTROLS FOR EASY VISUAL INSPECTION
filters
FILTERS
  • DIFFER FROM EQUALIZERS IN TWO BASIC WAYS

1. THEY ONLY ATTENUATE (CUT)

2. THEIR EFFECT IS MUCH MORE DRASTIC

high pass filter
HIGH PASS FILTER
  • HIGH PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES BELOW A GIVEN FREQUENCY
low pass filter
LOW PASS FILTER
  • LOW PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES ABOVE A GIVEN FREQUENCY
band pass filter
BAND PASS FILTER
  • BAND PASS FILTERS ATTENUATE ALL FREQUENCIES ABOVE AND BELOW TWO GIVEN FREQUENCIES
notch filter
NOTCH FILTER
  • NOTCH FILTERS ATTENUATE A VERY NARROW BANDWIDTH BETWEEN TWO FREQUENCIES
reverberation
REVERBERATION
  • SUCCESSIVELY REPEATING DELAYS CREATING CLOSELY SPACED ECHOES IS CALLED REVERBERATION OR REVERB
  • REVERB UNIT: A DEVICE THAT ARTIFICIALLY REPRODUCES THE SOUND CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENTS
reverb units
REVERB UNITS
  • ACOUSTIC ECHO CHAMBER
  • SPRING REVERB
  • PLATE REVERB
  • DIGITAL REVERB
reverb terms
REVERB TERMS
  • DELAY: THE TIME BETWEEN REFLECTIONS OF SOUND
  • PRE-DELAY: THE TIME BETWEEN THE ORIGINAL SOUND AND ITS FIRST REPETITION
  • REVERB DECAY TIME: TIME IT TAKES SOUND TO DECREASE 60 dB
delay units
DELAY UNITS
  • ANALOG DELAY USES PHYSICAL MEANS TO HOLD BACK A SIGNAL
  • DIGITAL DELAY SIMPLY CONVERTS SIGNAL (A/D CONVERTER), APPLIES A REVERB ALGORITHM AND THEN CONVERTS BACK TO ANALOG (D/A CONVERTER)
compressors
COMPRESSORS
  • AN AMPLIFIER WHOSE OUTPUT HAS A SMALLER DYNAMIC RANGE THAN ITS INPUT
  • ALSO CALL A LEVELING AMPLIFIER
  • IT CONTROLS THE DYNAMIC RANGE
limiters
LIMITERS
  • A COMPRESSOR WHOSE COMPRESSION RATIO EXCEEDS 11:1
  • A COMPRESSOR WHOSE OUTPUT STAYS BELOW A PRE-SET LEVEL
uses of compressor limiters
USES OF COMPRESSOR/LIMITERS

1. SMOOTH THE DYNAMIC RANGE

2. IMPROVE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY

3. IMPROVE S/N RATIO

4. CREATE THE EFFECT OF LOWERING AMPLITUDE

expander
EXPANDER
  • INCREASES THE DYNAMIC RANGE
noise gates
NOISE GATES
  • A DYNAMIC PROCESSOR THAT ALLOWS A SIGNAL TO PASS AT A PREDETERMINED POINT (THRESHOLD) BUT BLOCKS THOSE OF LESS AMPLITUDE
  • WORKS LIKE AN ON-OFF SWITCH FOR A MICROPHONE
  • DO NOT CONFUSE WITH NOISE PROCESSORS
noise processors29
NOISE PROCESSORS
  • ONLY TASK IS TO REDUCE ANALOG TAPE HISS
  • USES A UNIQUE DEVICE CALLED A COMPANDER WHICH IS A COMBINATION COMPRESSOR AND EXPANDER