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Internet Protocol

Internet Protocol

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Internet Protocol

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  1. Internet Protocol Internetworking Lab 1

  2. Why Internet?

  3. Protocols for Inter-network • TCP/IP protocol suite • TCP /UDP – layer 4 – Transport layer • IP network layer • Forward packets from network to network • Unique address which is globally recognized • Why not MAC/Physical addresses • Routing ( algorithms, decisions, tables )

  4. Internet Protocol - Goals • Single seamless communication • Physical network details to be hidden from applications • Hardware details • Software details • Addressing mechanism to locate the network/machine (independent of MAC/Phy address)

  5. Internet Protocol Goals • Based on the location of the network – forward the packets • For this purpose use – routing algorithms and tables

  6. Solution – IP functions • Provide an addressing mechanism • IP addresses • IP layer ( network layer) to provide Routing and forwarding mechanisms • Is not Reliable – No guarantees • Best Effort Delivery

  7. IP Address • 32 bits or 4 bytes • Each byte – 255 decimal – FF (hex) • Typical address 129.21.21.3 • Dotted quad, dotted decimal • Two parts – • Network id – locates the network – used in routing • Host id – identifies the host in the network

  8. Classes of IP address • Class A • Network id is in 1st byte, host id in the rest 3 • Class B • Network id is in first two bytes, host id in the last 2 • Class C • Network id is in the first three bytes, host id in the last byte • Class D and E – special cases

  9. Classes of IP addresses

  10. Identifying class

  11. Number of networks and hosts

  12. Specific IP addresses

  13. Network Mask The network mask (subnet mask) where there are 1’s indicates the network ID where there are 0’s indicates the host ID Examples for a class A address: 255.0.0.0 for a class B address: 255.255.0.0 for a class C address: 255.255.255.0

  14. IP functions

  15. Fragmentation in IP

  16. Fragmentation in IP • Identification • used to determine which fragments belong to each other • Flag • D flag =0– data may be fragmented • =1 data may not be fragmented • Fragment offset • indicates where a fragment belongs in the complete message – measured in octets

  17. Fragmentation field

  18. IP properties • Unreliable • Connectionless - ? • Best Effort