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GREECE LOCATION Balkan Peninsula b/c of the sea, people became fishers, sailors, traders EARLY PEOPLE Minoan Civilization palace had running water frescoes- Mycenaeans mainland Greece warrior culture clans- CITY-STATES Polis- developed around forts represented the people

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slide1

GREECE

  • LOCATION
  • Balkan Peninsula
  • b/c of the sea, people became fishers, sailors, traders
  • EARLY PEOPLE
  • Minoan Civilization
  • palace had running water
  • frescoes-
  • Mycenaeans
  • mainland Greece
  • warrior culture
  • clans-
  • CITY-STATES
  • Polis-
  • developed around forts
  • represented the people
  • Characteristics
  • small area and population
  • acropolis-
  • agora-

HOMERIC AGE

  • COMMUNICATION
  • Few people wrote
  • Oral communication
  • Traveling poets singing folk songs
  • epics-
  • Iliad and Odyssey
  • Homer-
  • Iliad-
  • Paris-
  • Helen-
  • Trojan Horse-
  • Odyssey-
  • Odysseus-
  • RELIGION
  • Role of Religion
  • explained nature and emotions
  • a way to get benefits now: long life, luck and good harvest
  • After Life-
  • Hades-
  • Myths-
  • Gods
  • Given human qualities
  • Mt Olympus-
  • Zeus-
  • Athena-
  • Apollo-
  • Oracles-
  • To please the gods they showed their bravery in athletic events.
  • Olympic Games-
  • GOVT.
  • Aristocracies-
  • Tyrants-
  • Democracy-
slide2

SPARTA AND ATHENS

  • SPARTA
  • Military society
  • Adult males serve in the military
  • At birth unhealthy children were left to die
  • Very little creativity
  • ATHENS
  • Birth of Democracy
  • Citizens at the top of the social class
  • Metics-
  • Slaves-
  • Govt.
  • Elected generals
  • Archons-
  • Draco-
  • Solon-
  • Cleisthenes-
  • Council of Five Hundred- representatives from each tribe
  • Direct democracy-
  • DAILY LIFE IN ATHENS
  • Economy
  • grew olives, grapes and figs
  • Education
  • valued education
  • stressed a sound mind in a healthy body

GREEK CONFLICTS

  • PESAN WARS
  • Between Greeks in Asia Minor and Persia
  • Supported by Athens
  • Athens and Sparta joined forces to defeat the Persians
  • PELOPONNESIAN WARS
  • Between Athens and Sparta
  • Sparta had the strongest army
  • Athens had the strongest navy
  • Sparta united w/ Persia to block Athens’ food supply
  • Athens surrendered
  • Greece became unstable
  • GREEK ART
  • Athens was the center of learning and art
  • Architecture: Pride was shown through temples, gymnasiums, theaters
  • Acropolis-
  • Parthenon-
  • Sculpture
  • Myron-
  • Phidias-
  • Nature of Greek Art:
  • glorified human beings
  • symbolized Greek pride in their city-state
  • expressed Greek beliefs in harmony, balance, order, moderation
  • expressed the Greeks belief in combining beauty and usefulness
slide3

PHILOSOPHERS AND WRITERS OF THE GOLDEN AGE

  • Rise of Philosophy
  • Philosophy-
  • used to better understand themselves and the world around them.
  • believed that all of nature is based upon certain natural laws, or truths
  • believed they could discover these through reason
  • Socrates- most important thinker
  • education was the key to personal growth
  • didn’t use memorization as a teaching tool
  • students be trained to think for themselves, asking questions that force students to test their own values and ideas- Socratic Method
  • developed enemies b/c his questions often made public officials look foolish, criticized democracy
  • accused of corrupting the minds of the
  • youth,
  • but on trial but didn’t defend himself and
  • was executed
  • Plato- greatest Socrates’ students
  • founded the Academy-
  • wrote maginary discussions among several people dealing w/ govt., ed., justice and religion. Featured Socrates teaching
  • “Theory of Forum”-
  • “The Republic”-
  • Ideal leaders were philosophers chosen b/c of their wisdom, ability and high ideals
  • Aristotle- Plato’s student
  • every field of knowledge had to be studied logically
  • collected and organized facts into systems
  • “Ethics”-
  • “Poetics”-
  • believed in a limited democracy-
  • Mathematics, Medicine and Science
  • Pythagoras-
  • Pythagorean theorem-
  • Hippocrates-
  • Herodotus-

Greek Theater

  • Drama-
  • first to write dramas, wrote in poetic form
  • two or three actors spoke or sang lines
  • male actors played women
  • chorus-
  • held in outside into hillside
  • orchestra-
  • little scenery
  • performed in connection w/ religious festivals, competition b/w playwrights
  • prizes awarded based on the beauty or wisdom of each play
  • Tragedies-
  • Sophocles-
  • Euripides-
  • Comedies-
  • Aristophanes-
slide4

ALEXANDER THE GREAT

  • Philip II of Macedon
  • Recruited and organized best disciplined army
  • infantry was organized into phalanxes-
  • Goal was to restore order in Macedon and then turn south
  • Philip united Greece his rule
  • Assassinate
  • Alexander- his son succeeded him
  • Alexander the Great
  • Educated by Aristotle
  • His military campaign are among the most admired in history
  • His courage in battle won the loyalty of his troops
  • Set out to conquer the world and bring the known world into a single empire
  • Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia
  • The soldiers tired to fighting refused to go on and he was forced back to Persia
  • Became seriously ill and died in Babylon.

Hellenistic World

  • Spread of Greek culture:
  • Alexander and his men married Persian women to bring them together in a single culture
  • Alexander’s empire breakup:
  • Three generals divided the
  • empire into Macedon, Egypt,
  • and Syria
  • HELLENISTIC CULTURE
  • Alexandria, Egypt- library holding much of the Hellenistic world’s knowledge and literature
  • Religion and Philosophy
  • Ruler worship to increase loyalty
  • Philosophy searched for understanding,
  • concerned w/ ethics
  • 4 schools of philosophy existed:
  • Cynicism-
  • Skeptics-
  • Stoic-
  • Epicurean-
  • Science
  • Math
  • Euclid-
  • Archimedes-
  • Medicine
  • Alexandria- center of medical
  • science
  • learned from Egypt
  • catalog the parts of the human
  • body by studying the bodies of
  • executed criminals
  • discovered that the brain is the center of the nervous system
  • Astronomy
  • used geometry tracked the movement of stars and
  • planets
  • Aristarchus-
  • Hipparchus-
  • Eratosthenes-