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Space Science Activities at NRL Presentation to the National Space Weather Assessment Committee Herbert Gursky Superintendent, Space Science Division Naval Research Laboratory 15 September 2005. Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005. Environmental Science Activities at NRL
Space Science Activities at NRL Presentation to the National Space Weather Assessment Committee Herbert Gursky Superintendent, Space Science Division Naval Research Laboratory 15 September 2005 Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
Environmental Science Activities at NRL Codes 7300, 7500: Weather and Ocean models and products (Stennis, Monterrey) Code 7200: Earth and ocean remote sensing for DoD and civilian activities Code 7600: Atmospheric, solar and astronomical research Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
The NASA-ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory The LASCO coronagraphs, developed by an NRL led consortium on the NASA-ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, have been returning images of the sun’s atmosphere since its launch in December 1995. Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
Coronagraph/CMESolar-Geophysical ForecastingSummary Comments (1) • Coronagraph images show when a CME has occurred and whether it is directed along the Sun-Earth line. • Solar disk activity sensors (e.g. GOES SXI, GOES XRS, or ISOON H) are used to distinguish CMEs directed towards Earth from those directed away from Earth. • Disk sensors alone cannot definitively show whether a CME has occurred and cannot determine the boundaries of a CME. • SOHO/LASCO coronagraphs have detected all significant geoeffective CMEs to date during solar cycle 23. A coronagraph can detect CMEs close to the Sun and, coupled with a solar disk sensor, can determine whether a CME is directed towards Earth.
NRL Breakout Model for CMEs Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Field Line Shear • Magnetic reconnection removes overlying field, destroying force balance and producing explosive expansion • Model produces fast eruption with interplanetary shock • Model now being used extensively by outside community to interpret observations, including both CMEs, solar flares and prominence eruptions. Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
UPCOMING MISSIONS STEREO: Instruments include 3 different coronographs and an EUV imager on two independent space-craft that will view the Sun from two vantage points. Launch September 2006 EIS: A high resolution spectrometer to study the sun. To be flown as part of the Japanese Solar-B mission. Launch September 2006 CDATE: A joint NRL-AFRL submission to DoD’s Space Test Program comprising a traditional coronagraph (10 solar radii) and a heliospheric imager (90 degrees). Intended as a step toward an operational coronagraph. Not manifested SCOR: A traditional coronagraph (15 solar radii) in the formulation phase for GOES-R. A combined traditional and wide-angle coronagraph is also being considered. Launch 2012, if selected. Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
Comments There should be substantial progress in predicting geomagnetic conditions at the Earth in the next several years. NOAA should be encouraged to adopt a coronagraph for GOES-R. Even so there could be a gap in coronagraph imagery between the late 2000s and 2012. NRL is not unique. Many research institutes and universities can provide high quality service to NOAA and NPOESS, including development of instruments and software, in orbit calibration and assessment. Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
Questions ? Herbert Gursky 15 September 2005
The Emergence of the EIS Instrument High Resolution Spectroscopy from space had its origin with Richard Tousey’s investigations of the Sun with V2 rockets in the 1940s and with Tousey’s and Herbert Friedman’s satellite experiments of the 60’s. More Recent History The 70s The 80s The 90s George Doschek and Uri Feldman develop Bragg Spectrometer for Japanese Solar-A mission Gunther Brueckner develops the HRTS spectrometer John Seely develops multilayer technology for mirrors and gratings Charlie Brown and Clarence Korendyke develop high quality instruments for solar and other studies. Mike Kowalski develops high resolution gratings for JPEX George Doschek and Uri Feldman develop Bragg Spectrometer for P78-1 Dewitt Purcell develops spectrometers for SkyLab Instruments