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The Nuclear Situation in Pakistan PowerPoint Presentation
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The Nuclear Situation in Pakistan

The Nuclear Situation in Pakistan

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The Nuclear Situation in Pakistan

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  1. The Nuclear Situation in Pakistan

  2. Historical Background • 1947 British colonial India is divided into two independent states

  3. Wars between India and Pakistan • 1947-48 first war over Kashmir • 1965 second Kashmir war • 1999 fighting occurs in Kashmir region

  4. The Separation of East and West Pakistan • 1971 India supports East Pakistan's separation from the Pakistani state militarily • This is a humitiliating defeat for Pakistan which starts to develop a nuclear weapons program

  5. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1956 Atomic Energy Research Council • 1965 first nuclear reactor built with US aid • 1968 India and Pakistan refuse to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty • 1972 decision to start a nuclear weapons program

  6. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1974 First Indian „peaceful“ nuclear explosion leads to intensifying of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program

  7. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1974 nuclear scientist Abdul Qadir Khan offers his services to the Pakistani government • Khan had studied in Europe, in West Berlin, Holland and Belgium

  8. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • He had worked at Physical Dynamic Research Laboratory, a company associated with the Urenco uranium enrichment consortium, before he was transferred away for asking „suspicous questions“ • 1976 Khan receives control over Pakistani uranium enrichment programs • 1978 Pakistan enriches uranium for the first time at an enrichment facility made according to Khan's plans

  9. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1979 Pakistan is sanctioned after the US intelligence learns about the Pakistani enrichment facility • However, after the Soviet Union attacks Afghanistan, Pakistan becomes the most important US ally in the region and the US government turns a blind eye on the nuclear weapons program

  10. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1980 Pakistan begins its missile program which is supported by China

  11. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • Mid 1980s-1990 Pakistan is able to produce enough uranium for a nuclear weapon and produces nuclear warheads • 1994 Prime minister Nawaz Sharif reveals that Pakistan has a nuclear bomb

  12. The development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program • 1998 Pakistan tests the Ghauri-I missile reaching 1,500 km • 1998 Both India and Pakistan make nuclear tests which lead to US sanctions (lifted in 2001)‏ • 1999 Pakistan makes further missile tests

  13. The Proliferation Scandal • 2003 It is revealed that Abdul Qadir Khan was responsible for building a proliferation network and selling nuclear technology to countries such as North Korea, Iran and Libya • Khan is pardoned by the Pakistani government but stays until today under house arrest

  14. Pakistani Nuclear Weapons Capability • Delivery Vehicles: • 1. Modified F-16 fighters as well as Mirage III and Mirage V aircraft

  15. Pakistani Nuclear Weapons Capability • Delivery Vehicles: • 2. Short-range Haft-II missiles and long-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles

  16. Sources • Ahmed, Samina: Pakistan´s Nuclear Weapons Program: Moving Forward or Tactical Retreat? (Kroc Institute Occasional Papers #18), 2000 • Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: A. Q. Khan Nuclear Chronology, Issue Brief: Non Proliferation Vol. VIII, No. 8, 2005 • Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary Beth (eds.): Pakistan`s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues (CRS Report for Congress), 2008 • Mahrwald, Susanne: Die Entwicklung der Atomwaffen- und Raketenprogramme in Indien und Pakistan, 2007 (http://www.weltpolitik.net/print/3346.html, accessed on 8 May 2008)‏