Existing Conditions • Civil War - 1918-1921 • War Communism • Kronstadt Rising 1921 • New Economic Policy (1921; ends War Communism) • Ban on Factions
MAJOR ISSUES • IDEOLOGY: International revolution or socialism in one country? • Stalin’s approach is appealing because: • It is practical • Puts control in Soviet hands (not international revolution) • Relief from struggle (after the civil war, etc) • ECONOMY: continue the NEP?
1st STEP • PARTY POSITIONING: • An early Bolshevik (unlike Trotsky) • Editor of Pravda • General Party Secretary (1922)
1922 – Lenin has first stroke; Stalin appointed General Secretary of the Communist party; forms Triumvirate with Zinoviev and Kamanev to prevent Trotsky from succeeding Lenin • 1923 – Central Committee is formed with only 3 of 40 members loyal to Trotsky; Trotsky forms the Left Opposition
1924 – Trotsky’s views condemned at Party conference; Lenin dies; Trotsky given the wrong date for the funeral
LENIN DIES 1924 • Lenin’s Testament released by Krupskaya to the Central Committee. Critical of Stalin. • Zinoviev and Kamenev convince Committee not publish it - might hurt them; makes Trotsky look good; Stalin not seen as a threat
The Politburo LeftRight TrotskyBukharin Kamenev Rykov Zinoviev Tomsky
Read pages 17-20 With a partner, draw up a plan to show Stalin how to defeat his rivals so he can become the sole ruler of the Soviet Union. Keep it relatively brief and use arrows, boxes, step-by-step instructions, etc. Comrade Stalin expects you will all do your best.
Stalin Kamenev Zinoviev 2nd Step: LEFT ALLIANCE Triumvirate formed to challenge Trotsky; Trotsky’s policies defeated at 1924 Congress;
TROTSKY - Demoted • Trotsky and his Left Opposition supporters lose influence • They will not create splits in the party because of the ban on factionalism of 1921 • loses position as Commissar of War
Stalin Bukharin 3RD Step – RIGHT ALLIANCE • 1925 – Stalin switches sides • “Socialism in one country” • supports NEP • Kamenev and Zinoviev oppose: call for non-confidence vote to end the NEP; they lose the vote
TROTSKY Kamenev Zinoviev UNITED OPPOSITION 1926 • Greater Democracy • Collectivization • International Revolution
TROTSKY - EXILED • Failed at attempts to influence the party (Stalin in control) • Accused of factionalism – all expelled from the party (1927) • Kamenev and Zinoviev go back to support Stalin (1928) • Trotsky deported to Alma-Ata (1928) and out of the USSR (1929)
4th Step: Defeats the Right • 1927 FOOD CRISIS • STARTS FORCED GRAIN COLLECTIONS • ATTACKS THE KULAKS • Bukharin accused of factionalism and removed from Politburo (1929) RIGHT AND LEFT WERE NOT ABLE TO FULLY UNITE AGAINST STALIN
Was Stalin’s rise to power due to his strength or his rivals’ weakness?Pages 13-23