Vocabulary Development PIIC Professional Development January 27, 2011 Nancy Neusbaum, IU15 Laura Yaeger, IU5
List-Group-Label • List-Brainstorm 7 words that you think of when you think about the Viet Nam War. • (At your table)Get into groups of 4 and work together to combine your individual lists into a common one. As you create your list, think of ways your words could be categorized. • Label your categories. • Share out.
Essential Questions • Why is it so important to spend time on words in the different content areas? • How do coaches plan with teachers to make this happen?
Reading – Vocabulary Connection Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
What does SES have to do with it? Cumulative Vocabulary Experiences Hart and Risley, 1997
Why teach vocabulary? • Research suggests teaching vocabulary is synonymous with teaching background knowledge. • Knowledge of any topic is encapsulated in the terms students know that are relevant to that topic. • Understanding some content vocabulary is critical to comprehending a text.
Content Vocabulary Although the events of m____ usually proceed accurately, sometimes ___________ fail to separate correctly. The failure of __________ ___________ to separate properly during m______ is called non___________. Recall that during m________, one __________ from each __________ pair moves to each ____ of the cell. In non___________, both ___________ of a __________ pair move to the same ____ of the cell.
Content Vocabulary Although the events of meiosisusually proceed accurately, sometimes chromosomesfail to separate correctly. The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosisis called nondisjunction. Recall that during meiosis I, one chromosome from each homologous pair moves to each poleof the cell. In nondisjunction, both chromosomes of a homologouspair move to the same poleof the cell.
How Much Vocabulary Do They Need to Know? • Independent Level: 95% of the text • Instructional Level: 90-95% of the text • Frustration Level: below 90% of the text Partnership for Learning, 2001
Instruction… If students had opportunities to read, write and talk to each other about content in every class, every day, achievement would soar. • Use collaborative pairs every day. • Assign something to read every day. • Have students write something every day.
Learning, as a language-based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998)
Vocabulary deficiencies… • Contribute to the achievement gap. • Appear early and increase over time if not addressed. • Are evident unless a student knows 95% of the words he or she reads.
Chances of Learning New Words in Context Source: Based on information from Swanborn & de Glopper, 1999
Word Sorts • Pre-reading: Formative assessment of student background knowledge of words and concepts • Post-reading: Review/assessment of student knowledge • May be open or closed sorts • Teacher provides words and students sort and categorize • Teacher provides words and categories • Provide opportunities for practice
How do I teach vocabulary? • Provide frequent and varied opportunities for students to think about and use words. • Provide direct instruction on words that are critical to new content. • Teach strategies for learning words independently. • Provide time for reading.
Impact of Direct Vocabulary Instruction Percentile Rank on Test Source: Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 83 62 50 No Vocab. Instruction Direct Vocab. Instruction Direct Vocab. Instruction on Content Words
The Facts… • A high performing 1st grader knows about twice as many words as a low performing one. (Hirsch, Jr.) • By 12th grade the high performer knows about 4 times as many words as the low performer (Hirsch, Jr.) • Adequate reading depends on a person already knowing between 90-95% of the words. (Nagy) • A well educated 12th grader knows an enormous number of words; most learned incidentally (Hirsch, Jr.) • There are more meanings than words (Biemiller)
The Facts… • Domain knowledge (a threshold knowledge about the topic being studied) enables readers to makes sense and select from multiple meanings (Hirsch, Jr.) • Domain knowledge is necessary to give meaning to otherwise confusing sentences. • Some conceptual understanding must occur before an individual can recall and use a word. • A reader’s general vocabulary knowledge is the single best predictor of how well that a reader can understand text. (Nagy)
So many words - So little time What are they? Examples isotope peninsula microbe • anticipate • scheme • adapt clock count squares
Choosing words based on Tiers • Tier 3: Low-frequency words, usually specific to an academic domain & best learned in the related content area, such as isotope, photosynthesis & psychologist. • Tier 2: High-frequency words that are important for capable language learners to have in their vocabulary, such as remorse, capricious, distinguished, & devious. • Tier 1: Basic words that rarely need to be taught, such as hair, always, dress, & laugh. Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002)
Let’s Practice Choosing the Words Select 8 words for explicit instruction Reading level: 8th*Words selected for instruction in manual Source: ‘Gift of the Magi’ ^Words defined in text
Let’s Practice Choosing the Words Select 8 words for explicit instruction Reading level: 8 Series: Prentice Hall Passage: Reader’s Bridge Words: highlighted in manual
Your Turn: Prioritize Your Vocabulary • Look at your list of Viet Nam War words. • Decide how you would classify each word (Tier 1, 2, or 3). • Share out by putting one post-it on each chart paper.
Implications for Teachers • Model the importance of vocabulary by allocating daily time for instruction. • Teach vocabulary skills as well as vocabulary meanings. • Consider contextual factors • Subject specific vocabulary • Multiple meaning words • Opportunities to utilize vocabulary across multiple contexts
Source: 8th grade student as written in When Kids Can’t Read, pg. 177 Vocabulary Casserole Ingredients Needed: 20 words no one has ever heard before in his life 1 dictionary with very confusing definitions in it 1 matching test to be distributed on Friday 1 teacher who just wants students quiet on Mondays copying words Mix 20 words onto blackboard. Have students copy each word and then look them up in the dictionary. Make students copy down all the definitions. For a little spice, require that students write words in sentences. Leave alone all week. Top with a boring test on Friday. Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon. Serves: No one
Source: 8th grade student as written in When Kids Can’t Read, pg. 177 Vocabulary Treat Ingredients Needed: 5-10 great words that you really could use 1 thesaurus map colors and chart paper 1 game like jeopardy or bingo 1 teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun Mix 5 to 10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for flavor. Toss with a thesaurus to find other words that mean the same. Write definitions on chart paper and let us draw pictures of words to remind us what they mean. Stir often all week by a teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun. Top with a cool game on Fridays like jeopardy or bingo to see who remembers the most. Serves: Many
So… Your recipe for success? Create a recipe for working with chosen teachers on changing vocabulary instruction.
Resources • Inside Words: tools for teaching academic vocabulary. Allen,J. Stenhouse. 2007 • Building Academic Vocabulary. Marzano,R. and Pickering,D. ASCD. 2005 • Word Wise and Content Rich. Fisher, D. and Frey, N. Heinemann.2008 • When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. Beers,K. Heinemann. 2003