Sexual Disorders. Aaron J. Blashill, M.S. Lykins, Janssen & Graham (2006). Do some individuals with depression and/or anxiety experience sexual arousal as opposed to sexual decline?
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Critics of GID has stated that (a) it is nothing more than normal variation in gender-related behavior (b) children with GID show little evidence of distress, and if they do, it is not inherent to the condition, but merely a reaction to social disapproval (c) GID in children is a strong predictor of homosexuality in adulthood, which is a “backdoor” way of preventing homosexuality
Homosexual men and women report more cross-sex-typed behavior during childhood than their heterosexual counterparts
55 boys with GID
At follow-up (ages 13-26) 5 were transsexual (with a homosexual orientation) 21 were homosexual, 1 was heterosexual transvestite, 15 were heterosexual and 13 could not be rated with regard to sexual orientation
Green (1987): feminine boys’ lack of close relationships with other boys and their fathers might result in “male affect starvation”. In adolescence and adulthood, homoerotic contact is used to achieve closeness with other males
Atypical gendered children feel different from their same-sex peers, and perceives them as dissimilar, unfamiliar, and exotic. For Bem, this exoticness leads to eroticism…we want what is different and exotic.
71% of first-degree relatives of men with PE also have the condition
situational/acquired PE may be more due to anxiety, early sexual experiences, low frequency of sex, or poor ejaculatory control techniques…new studies suggest that anxiety is more of a consequence rather than a cause
Recurrent, intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve unusual objects, activities, or situations and cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
Sexual arousal in response to being humiliated, bound, or beaten, for at least 6 months and suffer impairment, the arousal must be in response to actual, not simulated humiliation, bondage, or beatings
Most sexual masochists use little or no pain, more so through the loss of control
Can lead to serious injury and death (especially in the case of hypoxyphilia)
20:1 males: females
Appears to be modern compared to other paraphilias, as well as limited to Western cultures
More common with individual with higher income
No relationship between sexual masochism and non-sexual forms of masochism
Tend to be well-adjusted, and often quite successful, and above norms on measures of mental health
Recurrent sexual arousal over 6 months in response to fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the psychological or physical suffering of another, these must have been carried out, must be distressing, or cause interpersonal difficulty
Can lead to serious injury of death (specifically when there is comorbid ASPD)