Week 8 Overview. Gastrointestinal Test After test complete pages 75-76 in syllabus Review homework- oral practice Chapter 8- pages 172-183-lecture Getting ready for respiratory test- use pages 75-76 in syllabus Homework. Week #8-- Review For Respiratory Quiz.
Week 8 Overview • Gastrointestinal Test • After test complete pages 75-76 in syllabus • Review homework- oral practice • Chapter 8- pages 172-183-lecture • Getting ready for respiratory test- use pages 75-76 in syllabus • Homework
Week #8-- Review For Respiratory Quiz • Name at least three structures of the respiratory system and tell their function: • What is the most important test a respiratory therapist performs on a patient? • Define internal respiration. • Define external respiration. • What is the function of the nose? • Name a function of the respiratory system
What is the waste gas called? • What is another name for carbon dioxide? • Tell how emphysema, asthma, and bronchitis affect your lungs? • What is atelectasis • How does the diaphragm aid in breathing?
Define the following Terminology Pnea- Auscultation- Eupnea- Stethoscope Dyspnea- Tachypnea- Apnea- Anoxia- Epistaxis- Rhinorrhea- Aspiration- PND- Hemoptysis- Tx-
Dx tachypnea Bronchiole COPD Anoxia TKO PRN bronchiectasis ABG Hgb Thoracentesis antitussive SOB tracheostomy
RT UA Cyanosis pneumothorax Hemothorax pleuritis X-ray O2 C02 hyperventilation TPR Bp URI IPPB • Name two drugs used in the respiratory system
Cardiovascular System (CV)Components of the CV system- Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels Function of the Cardiovascular System A. Heart -Circulation 1. Pulmonary- to the lungs 2. Systemic – to the body systems 3. Coronary- supplies the heart
Blood-The fluid which circulates throughout the body carrying nourishment and oxygen to the cells and tissue C. Vessels: The role of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) is to carry blood to and from the body’s tissues and cells Artery Vein
Structure of the Heart: The heart is a cone-shaped, hollow, muscular organ weighing 300 grams, located in the mediastinum, a space between the lungs within the thoracic cavity. Its base is directed toward the body’s right side. The apex is directed toward the left and rests upon the diaphragm.
The heart is a double pump having two sides. The right side receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs to be oxygenated. The left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out through the aorta to all parts of the body.
Right side Left side
Cardiac Layers: • Pericardium- around the heart • Epicardium- upon the heart • Myocardium- muscle layer of the heart • Endocardium- within the heart
Around the heart • Upon the heart • Muscle layer of the heart • Within the heart
Cardiac Chambers (4 chambers) 1. Atria- Receiving chambers Receives blood from the body systems and the lungs A) Right Atrium- receives blood from the body’s systems (Interatrial septum- a wall between the atria) B) Left Atrium- receives blood from the lungs
Ventricles- pumping chambers Blood out to the lungs and body systems A.) Lower Right Ventricle-pumps blood to the lungs by way of pulmonary arteries (interventricular septum- a wall between the ventricles) B.) Lower Left Ventricle- pumps blood to the body systems by way of the aorta
RA- right atrium • FO- fossa ovalis • FO-foramen ovale-in • fetal life • LA-left atrium • TV-tricuspid valve • MV-mitral valve • (bicuspid valve) • RV-right ventricle • LV-left ventricle KEY
Heart Valves- Atrioventricular, Semilunar 1. Atrioventricular- between the atria and ventricles A) Tricuspid- (three cusps) between the right atrium and right ventricle B) Bicuspid- ( two cusps) aka- mitral between the left atrium and the left ventricle 2. Semilunar- between the ventricles and the vessel they are pumping through A) Pulmonary- pulmon/o-lung between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery B) Aortic- aort/o- the aorta between the left ventricle and the aorta
Major Vessels Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava Aorta Pulmonary Arteries Pulmonary Veins
Coronary Arteries The coronary arteries (right and left) branch off the aortic arch, encircle the heart and penetrate the myocardium. They supply the capillaries of the myocardium with blood. The coronary blood flow increases with: 1) increased activity such as exercise; 2) increased heart rate; increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. A. Right Coronary Artery B. Left Main which bifurcates into the 1) LAD- left anterior descending artery 2) CX- left circumflex Coronary Circulation
Mechanical Activity of the Heart 1. Cardiac Cycle. This is the actual pumping contraction of the blood through the heart (the chambers) and out to the designated areas of the body. This is related to heart tones that are auscultated and to blood pressure readings. The mechanical activity of the heart consists of a period of contraction known as systole and a period of relaxation known as diastole. a) S1- systole- when the heart is contracting b) S2- diastole- when the heart is resting
Electrical Function of the Heart 1. Cardiac Cells have certain unique properties a) excitability- the ability to initiate an impulse b) contractitlity- the ability to contract c) conductivity- the ability to send an impulse d) automaticity- the ability to do it automatically
Electrical Structures and Pathway Electrical activity precedes mechanical activity. The mechanical activity consists of a contraction. The heart can then function as a pump. The mechanical activity of the heart is noted by the presence of a contraction, a pulse! For every heartbeat on the EKG, there is usually a corresponding pulse. However there can be beats on the EKG and no corresponding pulse. Pulseless electrical activity is present (PEA)
Electrical Structures and Pathway Conduction System SA AV • SA node • AV node • Bundle of HIS • Left Bundle • Right Bundle • Purkinje Fibers
Pulse- the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery produced by the pressure of the blood moving through an artery.
Systolic- the greatest amount of pressure when the ventricles contract Blood Pressure- is a measurement of the amount of pressure exerted against the walls of the vessel. Diastolic- the lowest amount of pressure when the ventricles are relaxed
Blood Vessels • Arteries- vessels that take blood away from the heart • Arterioles- small arteries • Capillaries- a network of small vessels that exchange nutrients • Venule- small vein • Veins- vessels that return blood back to the heart
Veins also contain valves
Blood Cells • Plasma- straw-colored fluid that transports nutrients, hormones, and waste • Erythrocytes- red blood cells- RBC- they carry oxygen • Leukocytes-white blood cells-WBC-they help fight infection • Thrombocytes- platelets- they initiate clotting
Blood Groups- Typing Types A, AB, B, O • RH factor • (rhesus factor) • a protein on the red blood cell membrane • Positive- you have the protein • Negative- you don’t have the protein
Blood type Alleles Allele from Parent 1 Allele fromParent 2 For simplicity,we call these Genotype ofoffspring Blood types ofoffspring IA A A A AA A IB A B B AB* AB A i O O AO A B A AB* AB B B BB B B O BO B O O OO O I= dominant i= recessive A and B are Co-dominant
Blood type Blood type Possible genotypes Possible genotypes A AB AA AO AB O OO B BB BO
Type You Can Give Blood To You Can Receive Blood From A+ A+ AB+ A+ A- O+ O- O+ O+ A+ B+ AB+ O+ O- B+ B+ AB+ B+ B- O+ O- AB+ AB+ Everyone A- A+ A- AB+ AB- A- O- O- Everyone O- B- B+ B- AB+ AB- B- O- AB- AB+ AB- AB- A- B- O- Blood Donor/Receiver Information
Diagnostic Procedures • Angiography- recording of a vessel • Cardiac Catheterization- viewing the heart
Echocardiography-test that uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the heart muscle • Electrocardiography- recording of the electrical pattern of the heart
Pathology 1. Atherosclerosis- hardening of an artery due to fatty plaque 2. Arteriosclerosis- hardening of an artery
3. Aneurysm- a weakening in the wall of a vessel 4. Thrombosis- blood clot
Embolism- a foreign substance that has moved and causes a blockage • Hemorrhage- a bursting forth of blood • Hematoma- a large collection of blood in the tissues • Hypertension (HTN)- high blood pressure • Hypotension- low blood pressure • Anemia- (without blood) a deficiency in red blood cells • CHF- congestive heart failure • MI- myocardial infarction • Angina Pectoris- chest pain • Carditis- inflammation of the heart • Valvulitis- inflammation of the valve
16. Rhythms • NSR- normal sinus rhythm • Tachycardia- fast heart rate- greater than 100 beats per minute • Bradycardia- slow heart rate- less than 60 beats per minute
Fibrillation- a quivering of the heart • Flutter- an area in the atrium is firing faster than the SA node
Procedures of the CV system 1. PTCA- percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty