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Week 8 Overview. Gastrointestinal Test After test complete pages 75-76 in syllabus Review homework- oral practice Chapter 8- pages 172-183-lecture Getting ready for respiratory test- use pages 75-76 in syllabus Homework. Week #8-- Review For Respiratory Quiz.

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Week 8 Overview

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    1. Week 8 Overview • Gastrointestinal Test • After test complete pages 75-76 in syllabus • Review homework- oral practice • Chapter 8- pages 172-183-lecture • Getting ready for respiratory test- use pages 75-76 in syllabus • Homework

    2. Week #8-- Review For Respiratory Quiz • Name at least three structures of the respiratory system and tell their function: • What is the most important test a respiratory therapist performs on a patient? • Define internal respiration. • Define external respiration. • What is the function of the nose? • Name a function of the respiratory system

    3. What is the waste gas called? • What is another name for carbon dioxide? • Tell how emphysema, asthma, and bronchitis affect your lungs? • What is atelectasis • How does the diaphragm aid in breathing?

    4. Define the following Terminology Pnea- Auscultation- Eupnea- Stethoscope Dyspnea- Tachypnea- Apnea- Anoxia- Epistaxis- Rhinorrhea- Aspiration- PND- Hemoptysis- Tx-

    5. Dx tachypnea Bronchiole COPD Anoxia TKO PRN bronchiectasis ABG Hgb Thoracentesis antitussive SOB tracheostomy

    6. RT UA Cyanosis pneumothorax Hemothorax pleuritis X-ray O2 C02 hyperventilation TPR Bp URI IPPB • Name two drugs used in the respiratory system

    7. Cardiovascular System (CV)Components of the CV system- Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels Function of the Cardiovascular System A. Heart -Circulation 1. Pulmonary- to the lungs 2. Systemic – to the body systems 3. Coronary- supplies the heart

    8. Coronary Circulation

    9. Blood-The fluid which circulates throughout the body carrying nourishment and oxygen to the cells and tissue C. Vessels: The role of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) is to carry blood to and from the body’s tissues and cells Artery Vein

    10. Structure of the Heart: The heart is a cone-shaped, hollow, muscular organ weighing 300 grams, located in the mediastinum, a space between the lungs within the thoracic cavity. Its base is directed toward the body’s right side. The apex is directed toward the left and rests upon the diaphragm.

    11. Apex

    12. The heart is a double pump having two sides. The right side receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs to be oxygenated. The left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out through the aorta to all parts of the body.

    13. Right side Left side

    14. Cardiac Layers: • Pericardium- around the heart • Epicardium- upon the heart • Myocardium- muscle layer of the heart • Endocardium- within the heart

    15. Around the heart • Upon the heart • Muscle layer of the heart • Within the heart

    16. Cardiac Chambers (4 chambers) 1. Atria- Receiving chambers Receives blood from the body systems and the lungs A) Right Atrium- receives blood from the body’s systems (Interatrial septum- a wall between the atria) B) Left Atrium- receives blood from the lungs

    17. Ventricles- pumping chambers Blood out to the lungs and body systems A.) Lower Right Ventricle-pumps blood to the lungs by way of pulmonary arteries (interventricular septum- a wall between the ventricles) B.) Lower Left Ventricle- pumps blood to the body systems by way of the aorta

    18. RA- right atrium • FO- fossa ovalis • FO-foramen ovale-in • fetal life • LA-left atrium • TV-tricuspid valve • MV-mitral valve • (bicuspid valve) • RV-right ventricle • LV-left ventricle KEY

    19. Heart Valves- Atrioventricular, Semilunar 1. Atrioventricular- between the atria and ventricles A) Tricuspid- (three cusps) between the right atrium and right ventricle B) Bicuspid- ( two cusps) aka- mitral between the left atrium and the left ventricle 2. Semilunar- between the ventricles and the vessel they are pumping through A) Pulmonary- pulmon/o-lung between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery B) Aortic- aort/o- the aorta between the left ventricle and the aorta

    20. (Mitral) (Atrioventricular)

    21. Major Vessels Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava Aorta Pulmonary Arteries Pulmonary Veins

    22. Coronary Arteries The coronary arteries (right and left) branch off the aortic arch, encircle the heart and penetrate the myocardium. They supply the capillaries of the myocardium with blood. The coronary blood flow increases with: 1) increased activity such as exercise; 2) increased heart rate; increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. A. Right Coronary Artery B. Left Main which bifurcates into the 1) LAD- left anterior descending artery 2) CX- left circumflex Coronary Circulation

    23. Mechanical Activity of the Heart 1. Cardiac Cycle. This is the actual pumping contraction of the blood through the heart (the chambers) and out to the designated areas of the body. This is related to heart tones that are auscultated and to blood pressure readings. The mechanical activity of the heart consists of a period of contraction known as systole and a period of relaxation known as diastole. a) S1- systole- when the heart is contracting b) S2- diastole- when the heart is resting

    24. Electrical Function of the Heart 1. Cardiac Cells have certain unique properties a) excitability- the ability to initiate an impulse b) contractitlity- the ability to contract c) conductivity- the ability to send an impulse d) automaticity- the ability to do it automatically

    25. Electrical Structures and Pathway Electrical activity precedes mechanical activity. The mechanical activity consists of a contraction. The heart can then function as a pump. The mechanical activity of the heart is noted by the presence of a contraction, a pulse! For every heartbeat on the EKG, there is usually a corresponding pulse. However there can be beats on the EKG and no corresponding pulse. Pulseless electrical activity is present (PEA)

    26. Electrical Structures and Pathway Conduction System SA AV • SA node • AV node • Bundle of HIS • Left Bundle • Right Bundle • Purkinje Fibers

    27. EKG/ECGElectrocardiogram

    28. Pulse- the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery produced by the pressure of the blood moving through an artery.

    29. Systolic- the greatest amount of pressure when the ventricles contract Blood Pressure- is a measurement of the amount of pressure exerted against the walls of the vessel. Diastolic- the lowest amount of pressure when the ventricles are relaxed

    30. Blood Vessels • Arteries- vessels that take blood away from the heart • Arterioles- small arteries • Capillaries- a network of small vessels that exchange nutrients • Venule- small vein • Veins- vessels that return blood back to the heart

    31. Veins also contain valves

    32. Blood Cells • Plasma- straw-colored fluid that transports nutrients, hormones, and waste • Erythrocytes- red blood cells- RBC- they carry oxygen • Leukocytes-white blood cells-WBC-they help fight infection • Thrombocytes- platelets- they initiate clotting

    33. What Blood Type Are You?

    34. Blood Groups- Typing Types A, AB, B, O • RH factor • (rhesus factor) • a protein on the red blood cell membrane • Positive- you have the protein • Negative- you don’t have the protein

    35. Blood type Alleles Allele from Parent 1 Allele fromParent 2 For simplicity,we call these Genotype ofoffspring Blood types ofoffspring IA A A A AA A IB A B B AB* AB A i O O AO A B A AB* AB B B BB B B O BO B O O OO O I= dominant i= recessive A and B are Co-dominant

    36. Blood type Blood type Possible genotypes Possible genotypes A AB AA AO AB O OO B BB BO

    37. Type You Can Give Blood To You Can Receive Blood From A+ A+  AB+ A+  A-  O+  O- O+ O+  A+  B+  AB+ O+  O- B+ B+  AB+ B+  B-  O+  O- AB+ AB+ Everyone A- A+  A-  AB+  AB- A-  O- O- Everyone O- B- B+  B-  AB+  AB- B-  O- AB- AB+  AB- AB-  A-  B-  O- Blood Donor/Receiver Information

    38. Diagnostic Procedures • Angiography- recording of a vessel • Cardiac Catheterization- viewing the heart

    39. Echocardiography-test that uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the heart muscle • Electrocardiography- recording of the electrical pattern of the heart

    40. Pericardiocentesis- puncture into the pericardium

    41. Pathology 1. Atherosclerosis- hardening of an artery due to fatty plaque 2. Arteriosclerosis- hardening of an artery

    42. 3. Aneurysm- a weakening in the wall of a vessel 4. Thrombosis- blood clot

    43. Embolism- a foreign substance that has moved and causes a blockage • Hemorrhage- a bursting forth of blood • Hematoma- a large collection of blood in the tissues • Hypertension (HTN)- high blood pressure • Hypotension- low blood pressure • Anemia- (without blood) a deficiency in red blood cells • CHF- congestive heart failure • MI- myocardial infarction • Angina Pectoris- chest pain • Carditis- inflammation of the heart • Valvulitis- inflammation of the valve

    44. 16. Rhythms • NSR- normal sinus rhythm • Tachycardia- fast heart rate- greater than 100 beats per minute • Bradycardia- slow heart rate- less than 60 beats per minute

    45. Fibrillation- a quivering of the heart • Flutter- an area in the atrium is firing faster than the SA node

    46. Cardiac Arrest (CODE BLUE) the heart stops beating

    47. Procedures of the CV system 1. PTCA- percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty