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Chapter 25. Protists. Table of Contents. Section 1 Characteristics of Protists Section 2 Animal-like Protists Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists Section 4 Protists and Humans. Section 1 Characteristics of Protists. Chapter 25. Objectives. Define protist.

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table of contents

Chapter 25

Protists

Table of Contents

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Section 4 Protists and Humans

objectives

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Objectives
  • Define protist.
  • Describe a hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells.
  • Explain how protists are classified.
  • Describe the two major ways by which protists obtain energy.
  • List three structures protists use for movement.
  • Describe how protists reproduce.
a diverse group of eukaryotes

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

A Diverse Group of Eukaryotes
  • Protists are unicellular or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that are not plants, fungi, or animals.
characteristics of protists

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Characteristics of Protists

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Visual Concept

a diverse group of eukaryotes continued

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

A Diverse Group of Eukaryotes, continued
  • The First Eukaryotes
    • Evidence suggests that the first protists arose from endosymbiotic prokaryotes.
origin of eukaryotic cells

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Origin of Eukaryotic Cells

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Visual Concept

classification

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Classification
  • Protists are classified by the characteristics that make them fungus-like, plant-like, or animal-like.
characteristics

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Characteristics
  • Unicellular and Multicellular
    • Most protists are unicellular, but some form large, multicellular bodies.
comparing organisms that are unicellular and multicellular

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Comparing Organisms that are Unicellular and Multicellular

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Visual Concept

characteristics continued

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Characteristics, continued
  • Nutrition
    • Many protists are autotrophs, organisms that make their own food.
    • Other protists are heterotrophs, organisms that must get their food by eating other organisms or their byproducts.
characteristics continued11

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Characteristics,continued
  • Motility
    • Protists use flagella, cilia, or pseudopodia for locomotion.
reproduction

Section 1 Characteristics of Protists

Chapter 25

Reproduction
  • Protists reproduce either asexually, sexually, or both.
  • They reproduce asexually by binary fission or multiple fission.
  • They often reproduce sexually by conjugation.
objectives13

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Objectives
  • Discussthe key characteristics of Protozoa, Ciliophora, Sarcomastigophora, and Apicomplexa.
  • Describehow protozoa use pseudopodia to move and to capture food.
  • Explainhow ciliates move and reproduce.
  • Describehow mastigophorans move and capture food.
  • Describethe role of apicomplexans in disease.
phylum protozoa

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Protozoa
  • Animal-like protists can be found in the phylum Protozoa.
  • Protozoa use large, rounded, cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia forboth movement and feeding.
phylum protozoa continued

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Protozoa, continued
  • Protozoan Diversity
    • Protozoans include organisms that inhabit the oceans, lakes, soil and even the human intestines.
phylum ciliophora

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Ciliophora
  • Animal-like protists include the phylumCiliophora.
  • Ciliates move using cilia, which are short, hairlike, cytoplasmic projections that line the cell membrane.
phylum ciliophora continued

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Ciliophora, continued
  • Characteristics
    • Ciliates have the most elaborate organelles, including two types of nuclei.
feeding habits of a ciliate

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Feeding Habits of a Ciliate

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Visual Concept

phylum ciliophora continued19

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Ciliophora, continued
  • Reproduction
    • Ciliates reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually by conjugation.
phylum sarcomastigophora

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Sarcomastigophora
  • Animal-like protists include the phyla Protozoa,Sarcomastigophora.
  • For locomotion, sarcomastigophorans use flagella.
phylum apicomplexa

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Phylum Apicomplexa
  • Animal-like protists include the phylaApicomplexa.
  • These protists are animal parasites.
types of animal like protists

Section 2 Animal-like Protists

Chapter 25

Types of Animal-like Protists

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Visual Concept

objectives23

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Objectives
  • Describefour main body forms of algae.
  • List the common name for each of the seven phyla of plantlike protists.
  • Explainhow green algae and plants are similar.
  • Describefour phyla of funguslike protists.
  • Compareplasmodial slime molds, cellular slime molds, and water molds.
characteristics of algae

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Characteristics of Algae
  • Algae can be unicellular, colonial, filamentous, or multicellular.
  • Seven phyla of plantlike protists are Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Bacillariophyta, Dinoflagellata, Chrysophyta, and Euglenophyta.
plantlike protists

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists
  • Phylum Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
    • The phylum Chlorophyta contains more than 17,000 identified species of protists called green algae.
    • Both green algae and plants have chlorophylls and accessory pigments, store food as starch, and have cell walls made up of cellulose.
plantlike protists continued

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
    • The phylum Phaeophyta includes approximately 1,500 species of multicellular organisms called brown algae.
    • Brown algae are mostly marine organisms, and they include plantlike seaweeds and kelps.
plantlike protists continued27

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Rhodophyta (Red Algae)
    • The 4,000 species in the phylum Rhodophyta are known as red algae.
    • A few species of red algae live in fresh water or on land, but most red algae are marine seaweeds.
plantlike protists continued28

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
    • The phylum Bacillariophyta contains as many as 100,000 species of unicellular protists called diatoms.
plantlike protists continued29

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Dinoflagellata (Dinoflagellates)
    • More than 2,000 species of organisms called dinoflagellates make up the phylum Dinoflagellata.
    • Some species of dinoflagellates, such as those in genus Noctiluca, can produce bioluminescence, a display of sparkling light often seen in ocean water at night.
plantlike protists continued30

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Chrysophyta (Golden Algae)
    • The phylum Chrysophyta contains about 1,000 species of golden algae. Most golden algae live in fresh water, but a few species are found in marine environments.
plantlike protists continued31

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Plantlike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Euglenophyta (Euglenoids)
    • The phylum Euglenophyta contains about 1,000 species of flagellated unicellular algae called euglenoids.
    • Euglenoids are both plantlike and animal-like. Many are autotrophic, like plants, but they lack a cell wall and are highly motile, like animals.
funguslike protists

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Funguslike Protists
  • Biologists recognize two groups of funguslike protists: slime molds and water molds.
funguslike protists continued

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Funguslike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Myxomycota (Plasmodial Slime Molds)
    • Plasmodial slime moldsare multinucleate.
    • As the plasmodium creeps along the forest floor by cytoplasmic streaming, it consumes decaying leaves and other debris by phagocytosis.
funguslike protists continued35

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Funguslike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Dictyostelida (Cellular Slime Mold)
    • Cellular slime moldslive as individual haploid cells that move about like amoebas.
    • Each cell moves as an independent organism, creeping over the ground or swimming in fresh water and ingesting food.
funguslike protists continued36

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Funguslike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Oomycota (Water Molds)
    • Water molds are composed of branching filaments and many of this phylum are parasitic.
funguslike protists continued37

Section 3 Plantlike and Funguslike Protists

Chapter 25

Funguslike Protists, continued
  • Phylum Chytridiomycota (Water Molds)
    • Members of phylum Chytridiomycota, or the chytrids, are primarily aquatic protists characterized by gametes and zoospores with a single, posterior flagellum.
objectives38

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Objectives
  • Statefour environmental roles of protists.
  • Describealgal blooms and red tides and their impact.
  • Statean important role for protists in research.
  • Lista use of protists as food and three uses of protist byproducts.
  • Describefour protist-caused diseases.
protists in the environment

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists in the Environment
  • Protists produce large amounts of oxygen, form the foundation of food webs, recycle materials, and play a role in several symbiotic relationships.
protists in the environment continued

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists in the Environment, continued
  • Ecology of Protists
    • Algal bloomscan lead to the depletion of oxygen in water.
    • Red tides produce harmful toxins.
protists in research

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists in Research
  • Research on protists has helped biologists understand a number of fundamental cellular functions, such as leukocyte movement.
protists in industry

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists in Industry
  • Protists as Food
    • For thousands of years, humans have been collecting seaweeds for food.
protists in industry continued

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists in Industry, continued
  • Protist Byproducts
    • Protists provide important byproducts, such as alginate, carrageenan, and agar.
protists and health

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists and Health
  • Parasitic protists cause malaria, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and trichomoniasis in humans.
protists and health45

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Protists and Health
  • Malaria
    • Parasitic protists in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, which is characterized by severe chills, headache, fever, and fatigue.
    • Each year, nearly 3 million people die from malaria.
malaria life cycle

Section 4 Protists and Humans

Chapter 25

Malaria Life Cycle

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Visual Concept