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Unit 8B: Motivation and Emotion: Emotions, Stress and Health. Unit Overview. Theories of Emotion Embodied Emotion Expressed Emotion Experienced Emotion Stress and Health. Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Theories of Emotion.
Unit Overview • Theories of Emotion • Embodied Emotion • Expressed Emotion • Experienced Emotion • Stress and Health Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
Theories of emotions • Emotion • Physiological arousal • Expressive behavior • Conscious experience • Common sense theory
Theories of emotions • James-Lange theory
Theories of emotions • Cannon-Bard theory
Theories of emotions • Two-factor theory • Schachter-Singer
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System • Autonomic nervous system • Sympathetic nervous system • arousing • Parasympathetic nervous system • Calming • Moderate arousal is ideal
Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions • Different movie experiment
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions • Differences in brain activity • Amygdala • Frontal lobes • Nucleus accumbens • Polygraph
Cognition and EmotionCognition Can Define Emotion • Spill over effect • Schachter-Singer experiment • Arousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it
Cognition and EmotionCognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion • Influence of the amygdala
Detecting Emotion • Nonverbal cues • Duchenne smile
The Effects of Facial Expressions • Facial feedback
Fear • Adaptive value of fear • The biology of fear • amygdala
Anger • Anger • Evoked by events • Catharsis • Expressing anger can increase anger
Happiness • Happiness • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon • Well-being
HappinessThe Short Life of Emotional Ups and Downs • Watson’s studies
HappinessTwo Psychological Phenomena: Adaptation and Comparison • Happiness and Prior Experience • Adaptation-level phenomenon • Happiness and others’ attainments • Relative deprivation
Introduction • Health psychology • Behavioral medicine
Stress and Illness • Stress • Stress appraisal
Stress and IllnessThe Stress Response System • Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) • Alarm • Resistance • exhaustion
Stress and IllnessStressful Life Events • Catastrophes • Significant life changes • Daily hassles
Stress and the Heart • Coronary heart disease • Type A versus Type B • Type A • Type B
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease • Psychophysiological illnesses • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) • Lymphocytes • B lymphocytes • T lymphocytes • Stress and AIDS • Stress and Cancer
Emotion = a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
James-Lange Theory = the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Cannon-Bard Theory = the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Two-factor Theory = the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
Polygraph = a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
Facial Feedback = the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.
Catharsis = emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon = people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
Well-being = self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.