Unit Overview • Theories of Emotion • Embodied Emotion • Expressed Emotion • Experienced Emotion • Stress and Health Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
Theories of emotions • Emotion • Physiological arousal • Expressive behavior • Conscious experience • Common sense theory
Theories of emotions • James-Lange theory
Theories of emotions • Cannon-Bard theory
Theories of emotions • Two-factor theory • Schachter-Singer
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System • Autonomic nervous system • Sympathetic nervous system • arousing • Parasympathetic nervous system • Calming • Moderate arousal is ideal
Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions • Different movie experiment
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions • Differences in brain activity • Amygdala • Frontal lobes • Nucleus accumbens • Polygraph
Cognition and EmotionCognition Can Define Emotion • Spill over effect • Schachter-Singer experiment • Arousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it
Cognition and EmotionCognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion • Influence of the amygdala
Detecting Emotion • Nonverbal cues • Duchenne smile
The Effects of Facial Expressions • Facial feedback
Fear • Adaptive value of fear • The biology of fear • amygdala
Anger • Anger • Evoked by events • Catharsis • Expressing anger can increase anger
Happiness • Happiness • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon • Well-being
HappinessThe Short Life of Emotional Ups and Downs • Watson’s studies
HappinessTwo Psychological Phenomena: Adaptation and Comparison • Happiness and Prior Experience • Adaptation-level phenomenon • Happiness and others’ attainments • Relative deprivation
Introduction • Health psychology • Behavioral medicine
Stress and Illness • Stress • Stress appraisal
Stress and IllnessThe Stress Response System • Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) • Alarm • Resistance • exhaustion
Stress and IllnessStressful Life Events • Catastrophes • Significant life changes • Daily hassles
Stress and the Heart • Coronary heart disease • Type A versus Type B • Type A • Type B
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease • Psychophysiological illnesses • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) • Lymphocytes • B lymphocytes • T lymphocytes • Stress and AIDS • Stress and Cancer
Emotion = a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
James-Lange Theory = the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Cannon-Bard Theory = the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Two-factor Theory = the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
Polygraph = a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
Facial Feedback = the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.
Catharsis = emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon = people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
Well-being = self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.