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GLOBAL NUTRITION PowerPoint Presentation
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GLOBAL NUTRITION

GLOBAL NUTRITION

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GLOBAL NUTRITION

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  1. GLOBAL NUTRITION

  2. A Global View of Nutrition Throughout this course we have been primarily been discussing nutrition in the United States: - Food availability - Food choices - Guidelines - Diet and exercise - Undernutrition - Overnutriton and obesity - Diet and disease risks - Maternal & infant nutrition

  3. A Global View of Nutrition Throughout this course we have been primarily been discussing nutrition in the United States: - Food availability - Food choices - Guidelines - Diet and exercise - Undernutrition - Overnutriton and obesity - Diet and disease risks - Maternal & infant nutrition Many other parts of the world have similar nutritional patterns, but there are some significant differences.

  4. Concerns Hunger Uneasy or painful sensation caused by lack of food Undernutrition / Malnutrition Failure to achieve nutrient requirements Food insecurity Limited or uncertain availability of nutrients or food Overnutrition Failure to limit food intake A Global View of Nutrition

  5. Groups at risk: Poor - Can not afford food Isolated - Lack access to food resources Inadequately housed – Lack access to food storage & preparation Children – Dependent on family circumstances Hunger, malnutrition affect school performance Elderly - Economic difficulties, Physical ailments A Global View of Nutrition

  6. A Global View of Nutrition More than 48 million Americans (nearly one in six) are food insecure. About one-third of those had very low food security in which the food intake was reduced and their normal eating patterns were disrupted. Food insecurity exists in every county in America, ranging from a low of 5% in Steele County, ND to a high of 38% in Wilcox County, AL.

  7. A Global View of Nutrition In the United States, more than 12 million children live in households which are food insecure: More then 3 million don’t have enough to eat and are deficient in calories and most nutrients More than 9 million consume enough calories but are deficient in specific nutrients such as proteins, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals.

  8. A Global View of Nutrition At the same time: Two-thirds of adults in the U.S. are overweight (BMI > 25) and nearly one third are obese (BMI > 30) One-sixth of U.S. children aged 6 to 19 are overweight or obese. 300,000 deaths each year are due to obesity

  9. A Global View of Nutrition We’ve already discussed the nutritional guidelines of USDA and DHHS to help develop healthy diets.

  10. A Global View of Nutrition In the United States, a number of programs attempt to help meet the nutritional needs of children: At the federal level these are coordinated by the USDA Food and Nutrition Services Program - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programs (food stamps) - Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) - School breakfast and lunch programs

  11. A Global View of Nutrition In the United States, a number of programs attempt to help meet the nutritional needs of children: Many states and communities also provide assistance: - Minnesota Food Assistance Program - Wisconsin Emergency Food Assistance Program - Local Food banks

  12. A Global View of Nutrition Worldwide, nutritional programs are provided through such agencies as - United Nations - International Nutrition Foundation - World Health Organization - Cooperative for Assistance & Relief Everywhere Most nations also have their own agencies

  13. A Global View of Nutrition

  14. A Global View of Nutrition

  15. A Global View of Nutrition Worldwide, more than 20,000,000 children under the age of five suffer from severe undernourishment leading to diseases we have already discussed such as rickets (vitamin D deficiency) scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) beriberi (thiamine deficiency) pelagra (niacin deficiency) kwashiorkir or marasmus (protein & calorie deficiency)

  16. A Global View of Nutrition Worldwide, more than 20,000,000 children under the age of five suffer from severe undernourishment leading to diseases we have already discussed such as rickets (vitamin D deficiency) scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) beriberi (thiamine deficiency) pelagra (niacin deficiency) kwashiorkir or marasmus (protein & calorie deficiency) Nearly 6,000,000 children die from undernourishment each year – half of all child deaths.

  17. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness Deficiencies of calcium, potassium, biotin, zinc, or vitamin E lead to growth retardation Deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, folic acid, or vitamins B6 or B12 lead to anemia and other problems Vitamin K deficiencies lead to bleeding problems Iodine deficiencies lead to thyroid problems and goiter A Global View of Nutrition

  18. A Global View of Nutrition Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition: 1. The world food equation correlates three things - Economic development - Employment - Food consumption While economic development is generally a good thing for a country, the increased employment leads to higher standards of living which leads to increased food consumption.

  19. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 1. The world food equation correlates three things - Economic development - Employment - Food consumption Economic development also changes the patterns of food production & consumption: Smaller farms larger farms Hand / animal farming mechanized farming Crops for food crops for biofuels Fewer whole foods more processed foods

  20. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 1. The world food equation correlates three things - Economic development - Employment - Food consumption End result: Food more expensive Food unevenly distributed Fewer foods available Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  21. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 2. Global climate change leads to Unpredictable growing seasons, which leads to Less food and fewer foods, which lead to Increased cost, which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  22. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition

  23. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 3. Overpopulation leads to More people consuming the same amount of food , which leads to Less food available per person and Increased food costs, which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  24. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition Population per square kilometer

  25. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 4. Urbanization leads to Increased transportation costs, which leads to Increased cost, which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  26. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition

  27. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 5. Poverty leads to Fewer people can afford to grow food and Fewer people can afford to buy food which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  28. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition

  29. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 6. Disease also plays a major role - Bacteria, viruses, and parasites spread through contaminated food or water cause diarrhea (dysentery) and/or vomiting, preventing absorption of nutrients - Inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulceritive colitis prevent aborption of nutrients - Any disease which weakens individuals makes it difficult for them to find food or to eat

  30. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 7. War and civil unrest leads to Destruction of farmland and Fewer people farming and Uneven distribution of food which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  31. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition 8. Environmental damage leads to Destruction of farmland which leads to Less food available per person and Increased costs to produce & purchase food which leads to Fewer people have access to healthy diets

  32. Factors that contribute to hunger and malnutrition Obviously, none of these factors alone cause the problem: Economic development Climate changes Overpopulation Urbanization Poverty Disease War Environmental damage Often coexist

  33. A Global View of Nutrition Let’s return for a moment to the world food equation correlating Economic development Employment Food consumption While one result is increased hunger and malnutrition, another result is increased obesity

  34. A Global View of Nutrition

  35. A Global View of Nutrition The take-home message: Just like everything else we have discussed in this class the key to nutitional health is moderation – be food smart: Healthy foods Different types of foods Fewer refined and processed foods Ensure adequate, but not excessive, intake of all nutrients

  36. That’s the last topic in this course so We will not meet Thursday Instead, here’s the last quiz :

  37. Quiz #6: Select one of the following countries and list five causes of food insecurity or malnutrition in that country. - Do not list more than 5 causes - Each answer must specify the effect For example: “Poverty” would not be enough, but “Poverty rate is 72%” would be OK - No single answer can be more than eight words Afghanistan Guatemala Angola Haiti Bolivia Mali Cambodia Peru Ethiopia Sudan

  38. Quiz #6: Select one of the following countries and list five causes of food insecurity or malnutrition in that country. - Do not list more than 5 causes - Each answer must specify the effect For example: “Poverty” would not be enough, but “Poverty rate is 72%” would be OK - No single answer can be more than eight words Afghanistan Guatemala Angola Haiti Bolivia Mali Cambodia Peru Ethiopia Sudan Your quiz must be turned in (hard copy only – not electronically please) by 3:30pm on Thursday