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How do species interact to generate stability in ecosystems? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How do species interact to generate stability in ecosystems?. Community Interactions. First, some terms… Habitat vs. Niche. A habitat is all the abiotic and biotic factors where an organism lives.

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first some terms habitat vs niche
First, some terms…Habitat vs. Niche
  • A habitat is all the abiotic and biotic factors where an organism lives.
  • A niche is comprised of all the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species needs to survive and thrive.
    • It’s like its role in the environment (how it lives within the habitat)
    • Niche Includes: place in the food web, tolerable abiotic conditions, and behaviors
community interactions
Community Interactions
  • Community: all interacting species of organisms in a given area
    • Interactions among organisms can affect population growth and size, thus affecting other populations
community factors that affect overall ecosystem health
Community Factors that affect Overall Ecosystem Health
  • Diversity
    • Richness, relative abundance
  • Prevalent form of vegetation
    • Dominant plants and their structure
  • Stability
    • Type of community, nature of disturbances
  • Trophic structure
    • Place in the food chain: competition, predation, and symbiosis
types of interactions predation
Types of Interactions:Predation
  • Predation: One animal eats and kills another
    • Predator benefits from food.
    • Prey benefits by eliminating non-adaptive genes from the gene pool.
      • Prey adaptations may include chemical defenses, stings, camouflage, etc…
types of interactions predation6
Types of Interactions:Predation
  • Predator / Prey Graph
    • Shows the cycling of prey and predator population sizes based on interactions with each other and quality of the habitat over time
types of interactions competition
Types of Interactions:Competition
  • Competition: Two organisms strive to obtain the same limited resource, and both are harmed to some extent
  • Types of Competition:
    • Intraspecific: same species compete
    • Interspecific: different species compete
  • The more similar the competing species, the more intense the competition
types of interactions competition8
Types of Interactions:Competition
  • Competitive Exclusion Principle: No two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place at the same time.
    • If you are the “less fit” species, you must evolve into a slightly different niche, move, (or go extinct)
types of interactions symbiosis
Types of Interactions: Symbiosis
  • Symbiosis: An overarching term for any interaction that involves a close, physical, and long-term relationship between two species. One species always benefits
types of symbiosis
Types of Symbiosis:
  • Parasitism: One organism, the parasite, lives in or on another organism, the host, from which it derives its nourishment
types of symbiosis11
Types of Symbiosis:
  • Commensalism: One organism benefits while the other is not affected
    • Eyelash mites
  • Mutualism: Both species benefit. In most cases one cannot exist without the other.
    • Acacia ants