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Strengthening Women’s Livelihoods through Collective Action: Market Opportunities in Smallholder Agriculture Research Design & Methodology. Bertus Wennink & Thea Hilhorst International Advisory Group Meeting 28 – 29th June 2010, Oxford. Outline. Research Steps & Planning (recall)

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Strengthening Women’s Livelihoods through Collective Action: Market Opportunities in Smallholder AgricultureResearch Design & Methodology

Bertus Wennink & Thea Hilhorst

International Advisory Group Meeting

28 – 29th June 2010, Oxford

  • Research Steps & Planning (recall)
  • Resources available for research
  • Selection of Sub-sectors
  • Inventory of Collective Action
  • Gendered mapping of sub-sectors
  • Survey
  • Focus Group Discussions & Case studies

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

research steps as in proposal
Research steps (as in proposal)
  • Step 1 Selection of sub-sectors (markets) for in-depth analysis –informed by SD; gendered sub-sector and supply chain analysis (2010)
  • Step 2 Primary data collection:
  • Analysis of existing forms of collective action; costs and benefits for male and female members, and identification of gender-specific barriers of access to collective action (2010 + case studies 2011)
  • Assessment of interventions for enabling gender equitable collective action to improve market access and bargaining power (2011: outcome mapping)
  • Step 3 Identification of new practices for effective collective action of women around market access informed by research findings (2011)
resources available for research
Resources available for research
  • Total budget: $410.000
    • BMGF: $390.000 (40% of total project budget)
    • KIT own resources:+/- $30.000
  • Allocation/division of resources:
  • KIT Research team: 23% (132 days in total)
  • Country research teams 49% : ( 2 pp/country each team has 210 days in total) –about 50 already used
  • Travel budget: 14% (= about 3 field visits)
  • Survey: 14% (3 countries) $18700/ country
  • Period available for research: 18 months (January 2010– July 2011)
research steps phase 1
Research Steps –phase 1

Choice of Countries & Regions

I. Selection of Sub-sectors

Gendered Mapping of Selected Sub-sectors

II. Inventory of Types of Collective Action

Mapping of Primary Level CA in ‘Districts’ etc.

Literature Review

Listing & Sampling of CAs

III. Survey

100 Coll. Acts & 10% Members/Non-mbs

Identification of Issues & Cases for FGDs & Studies

IV. Focus Group Discussions 2010


Completed April 2010

Start April 2010

May - June 2010

Planning Sep - Nov 2010

Start Feb 2010

Start-up phase 2:

effective interventions


Case studies 2011

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

process for selection of sub sectors february april 2010
Process for Selection of sub-sectors (February - April 2010)
  • Steps
      • Inventory of sub-sectors by researchers (secondary data) long list
      • Inventory of sub-sectors by participants in stakeholder dialogue  new long list oradd to long list
      • Assessment of sub-sectors by SD participants according to:
        • Actual women’s participation (labor and income)
        • Actual market size (expectations on sustained growth)
      • Crossing of the two criteria for each sub-sector (matrix)
      • Selection of actual ‘high potential’ sub-sectors by the stakeholders with presence of collective action short list
selection of sub sectors ctd
Selection of Sub-sectors (ctd)

Matrix for selection of sub-sectors

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

selected sub sectors
Selected Sub-sectors

* Gender segregation; but changing + implications of market demand/ technology change

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

selected sub sectors ctd
Selected Sub-sectors (ctd)

Tiger nuts

Green gram

Allan blackia nuts

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

remarks on process ss selection
Remarks on process SS selection
  • In project design: SS selection informed by SD participants (to comment on/add to proposal by researchers); change at AA workshop SS selection decided by participants SD (researchers narrowed down from 4 to 3) – more engagement, but implications for research design; research into SS had to start later than anticipated
  • Existence of Collective to be key criteria – but was it always sufficiently taken into account?
  • Intention: Actual economic importance => discussion more on potential economic importance? – Also because difficult in practice to obtain secondary data on economic potential and women participation (at the regional level)
  • SD was much more time & resource consuming than anticipated; during workshop: not enough time left for full inventory CA and gendered mapping, identifying locations);
  • Communications lines/ planning became “complex”: confusing for research team regarding who was deciding on what; mixed messages
inventory of types forms of collective action
Inventory of Types & Forms of Collective Action

According to the chain functions:

Operators/operations: production, processing & transport, and marketing

Supporters/support services: groupings around inputs; training & advice (e.g. farmer field schools), and credit & savings

According to forms:

Status: formal & informal

Gender: men-only, women-only or mixed

Location (geographic)

Numbers (estimates of total no. CA per type/form, no. of female & male members)

inventory started during SD + extra follow up work in selected sites by field assistants (not in workplan)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

gendered mapping of the sub sectors
Gendered Mapping of the Sub-sectors

Gendered mapping:

Visualization of the selected sub-sectors & existing value chains

Identification of all chain operations, support services (incl. pilots to promote women’s access to markets)

Assessment of policy & institutional environment

Highlighting the position of women in the sub-sector

Highlighting the collective action in the sub-sector; presence of women

The gendered sub-sector map allows for

understanding of actual position of women in sub-sector

Identifying potentials and barriers for women producers, processors & traders to access markets and improve revenues

Assessing options for using collective action to enhance gender equitable benefits in the sub-sector and empowerment

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

gendered mapping of the sub sectors ctd
Gendered Mapping of the Sub-sectors (ctd)


Collect of information during Stakeholder Dialogues & identification of resource persons & additional sources of information

Continued collect of information (during 2010) and complete map & analysis (2011)

Collect information during field visits for the survey (see next step; features of the regions & villages, gendered mapping of the selected sub-sectors)

Collect information during field visits the Focus Groups Discussions


Amsterdam, The Netherlands

initial proposal sequencing of survey fgds case studies
Initial Proposal: Sequencing of Survey, FGDs & Case Studies

Gendered mapping




-Focus Group Discussions

-case Studies

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

initial proposal survey
Initial proposal Survey

Object of survey

Formal & informal types of collective action in selected SS

Women inside & outside collective action

(understanding differences between female and male members on costs/ benefits: FGD /case study- not in survey


‘Characteristics’ of women inside & outside collective action

Costs;benefits; risks from collective action for women

Empowerment as a result of CA

Methods for data collection

questionnaires with individual women (members & non-members of collective action but active in sub-sector living in same community)

questionnaires with leaders/resource persons of collective action “types”

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

initial proposal survey planning
Initial proposal Survey planning

Develop detailed questionnaires (mid Aug 2010)

    • Country level translation
    • Pre-testing
    • Finalize questionnaire

Prepare site & case selection

    • Full list of Collective action; members; non-members in selected sites (Aug 2010)
    • Sampling
    • Train research teams
  • Data collection (Sep - Oct 2010 given rainy season & availability of farmers)
  • Data entry & processing (start Nov 2010)
  • Analysis (Dec 2010)
  • FGD simultaneously (planning) or following survey analysis in 2011?
cases and sampling
Cases and sampling

Sampling strategy

2 Districts/ woreda/ commune with 2 or 3 of the selected sub-sectors)

100 cases of CA/ country: => 16 cases per Subsector or weighted (based on total CA or membership in population in selected sites)?

Female Members/ non-members in subsector in same community (characteristics; cost-benefit; empowerment)

Establish list of members of CA and lists of women outside CA but active in sub-sector working in the same locality

Selection (at random) of 5 women inside & 5 women outside CA

Collective action questionnaire: via leaders/resource persons of CA.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

however is the initial plan still the right approach
However – is the initial plan still the right approach?
  • Some sub-sectors selected seem to have very limited collective action directly related to market access (seems limited to labour sharing --Tanzania- Ethiopia-coffee/ vegetables)
  • Tanzania; all reported CA seem externally induced- is this correct?
  • In some SS very limited numbers of CA until now
  • Higher than expected variation types of CA: is it possible to analyse cost; benefit, risks or empowerment (strategic interests) using a survey as main methodology?
  • Sampling & logistics: Sub-sectors seem spread out over large area/ limited overlap.
  • It may be better to postpone survey: continue with more qualitative work for each SS starting at community level (gender biases to enter and to stay; full inventory and typology CA, economics); –only then followed by a survey (reconsider sampling and counter factual)
  • What is the most optimal use of limited resources and time to achieve quality?