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Learning and Behavioral Assessment. William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University. Use quotes sparingly. Interferes with the flow of the report. Undermines professional tone.

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Learning and behavioral assessment

Learning and Behavioral Assessment

William P. Wattles, Ph.D.

Francis Marion University


Use quotes sparingly
Use quotes sparingly

  • Interferes with the flow of the report.

  • Undermines professional tone


Learning and behavioral assessment


Learning and behavioral assessment


Improving reports
Improving reports physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Consider all aspects of the person

    • Strengths

    • Social life


What is learning
What is learning? physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • How organisms come to behave in new ways.

    • motivation

    • knowledge

    • change in behavior


Behaviorism
Behaviorism physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The study of observable behavior with an emphasis on the role of environment in determining behavior in terms of operant and classical conditioning.


Stimulus
Stimulus physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • a property of the environment that you can detect with your senses.


Response behavior
Response (Behavior) physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Something you do.


Learning and behavioral assessment

  • What is this couple physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”not doing?

  • Are they not reading?

  • Or are they not sleeping?

  • Not doing something is not a behavior.


Response
Response physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Something you do. Also called behavior

  • Response = Behavior

  • Behavior can be

    • elicited

    • emitted


Elicited behavior
Elicited Behavior physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • A behavior such as a reflex that results from the presentation of a stimulus and is not voluntary.

  • Example: Patellar reflex


Emitted behavior
Emitted Behavior physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • A voluntary behavior. The organism may or may not make this response.


Classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Pavlov’s Dog

    • Meat powder

    • Salivation

    • Metronome

    • Salivation


Learning and behavioral assessment

CS physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

elicits

conditioned stimulus

metronome

CR

conditioned stimulus

salivation

elicits

US

UR

Unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

salivation

meat powder


Classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The dog learns to associate meat powder with the metronome.

  • The dog learns pairing

  • the dog learns what goes with what.


Operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Thorndike’s cat

    • cage

    • food

    • pulling the rope

    • getting the food


Antecedent
Antecedent physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • a stimulus that tells or reminds the organism about a relationship between a behavior and another stimulus

  • called the discriminative stimulus


Behavior
Behavior physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Behavior or response. Something the organism can do.


Consequence
Consequence physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • A stimulus or property of the environment that is presented contingent on the behavior.


Learning and behavioral assessment

A physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”ntecedent

Behavior

Consequence


Contingent
Contingent physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The consequence is contingent on the behavior. No behavior no consequence.


Contingent1
Contingent physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The consequence is contingent on the behavior. No behavior no consequence.


Operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The cat learns the consequences of its actions.

  • The cat learns what to do to get what you want.


Operant conditioning2
Operant conditioning physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”


Positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Antecedent

  • Response

  • Consequence

  • What happens to the behavior?


Response cost
Response Cost physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Antecedent

  • Response

  • Consequence

  • What happens to the behavior?


Negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcement physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Antecedent

  • Response

  • Consequence

  • What happens to the behavior?


Punishment
Punishment physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Antecedent

  • Response

  • Consequence

  • What happens to the behavior?


Three requirements for reinforcement
Three requirements for reinforcement physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • The behavior must increase

  • The consequence must be contingent on the behavior

  • The contingency must cause the increase in behavior.


Extinction
Extinction physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

When reinforcers are no longer provided, the behavior stops


Extinction burst
Extinction Burst physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

When you begin to stop delivering a

reinforcer, the behavior first increases

before it decreases to zero.


Learning and behavioral assessment

Partial Reinforcement Schedules physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

Intermittent reinforcement schedules take

longer to extinguish.


Continuous reinforcement crf
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • is the first and most basic of the Schedules. Under this schedule, every time the target behavior occurs, it is reinforced. The ratio of reinforcement to behavior is then 1:1.


Fixed schedules of reinforcement
Fixed Schedules of reinforcement physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • are an extension of the CRF concept. Instead of one reinforcement for each behavior, a predetermined number of behaviors are required to earn reinforcer.

  • A Fixed Ratio of 3:1 then would mean that the individual would have to demonstrate the target behavior 3 times in order to receive a reinforcement.


Variable schedules of reinforcement
Variable Schedules of reinforcement physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • are the ultimate goal of any intervention. A Variable Ratio Schedule of 3:1 means that on the average the person is reinforced for every 3 demonstrations of the target behavior.


Ratio strain
Ratio Strain. physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • This happens when the Schedule of Reinforcement is set too high and the individual "gives up" before the next reinforcement becomes available.


Stimulus generalization
stimulus generalization physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli producing secondary conditioning


What is behavior analysis
What Is Behavior Analysis? physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Direct measurement of behavior through systematic observation and recording systems..

  • Functional analysis of the causes of behavior: find factors that prompt and maintain the behavior of interest.

  • An emphasis on using positive reinforcement to build and maintain desirable behavior.


Functional analysis
Functional Analysis physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Antecedent

  • Behavior clearly specified and measurable

  • Consequences (maintaining variable)


Learning and behavioral assessment

Problem Behavior physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

Concrete Definition

Trish is aggressive.

Trish hits other students during recess when she does not get her way.

Carlos is disruptive.

Carlos makes irrelevant and inappropriate comments during class discussion.

Jan is hyperactive.

Jan leaves her assigned area without permission.

Jan completes only small portions of her independent work.

Jan blurts out answers without raising her hand.


Functional analysis1
Functional Analysis physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • In the field of applied behavior analysis. This is the process of determining the cause (or "function") of behavior before developing an intervention.


Methods to determine function
Methods to determine function physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • interviews and rating scales,

  • direct and systematic observation of the person's behavior, and

  • manipulating different environmental events to see how behavior changes.


Types of behavior
Types of behavior physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • a) behavior that produces attention and other desired events (e.g., access to toys, desired activities), (b) behavior that allows the person to avoid or escape demands or other undesired events/activities, and (c) behavior that occurs because of its sensory consequences (relieves pain, feels good, etc.).


Competing response
Competing Response physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Differential Reinforcement of Other

    • Reinforce a competing response to decrease a behavior.


Response prevention
Response prevention physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Escape or avoidance conditioning.


Catch em being good
Catch ‘em being good. physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

  • Benefits of reinforcement over punishment.

  • Energy

  • Self-image

  • Feelings toward teacher

  • Mood

  • Potential for abuse


Learning and behavioral assessment

The End physical support; she explained “he was my whole life until he ruined it by being with that whore.”

The End