The good the fat the ugly
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The Good, the FAT, & the Ugly. Pauline Williams, MPA, RD, CD. Nutrition and Food Science Workshop 2008. The body needs fat. Insulation Protection Energy Storage Muscle fuel Hormone Synthesis Nerves Cell Membranes. Fats look and act different in the body. Number of carbons in chain

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The good the fat the ugly l.jpg

The Good, the FAT, & the Ugly

Pauline Williams, MPA, RD, CD

Nutrition and Food Science Workshop 2008


The body needs fat l.jpg
The body needs fat

  • Insulation

  • Protection

  • Energy Storage

  • Muscle fuel

  • Hormone Synthesis

  • Nerves

  • Cell Membranes


Fats look and act different in the body l.jpg
Fats look and act different in the body

  • Number of carbons in chain

    • Short, medium, or long

  • Placement and number or double bonds

  • Structure – chain, round, bent


Fatty acids l.jpg
Fatty Acids


Saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids l.jpg
Saturated versus Unsaturated Fatty Acids

  • Saturated fatty acid – filled to capacity with hydrogen atoms

  • Unsaturated fatty acid – missing hydrogen

    • Monounsaturated – one point of unsaturation

    • Polyunsaturated – two or more points of unsaturation (PUFA)


Saturated fats l.jpg

C

C

C

C

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

C

C

Saturated Fats

  • solid at room temperature

    • Exception: coconut and palm oil

  • Usually from animal sources

    • lard, butter, bacon, fatty red meat, cream, chocolate, cream cheese, sour cream

  • high intake

    • increase risk for heart disease


Monounsaturated l.jpg

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

Monounsaturated

  • liquid at room temperature, cloudy in fridge

  • Food sources

    • Avocado

    • Nuts (almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, pistachios)

    • Oil (olive, canola, peanut, sesame)

    • Olive

  • may be protective against heart disease


Polyunsaturated l.jpg

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Polyunsaturated

  • liquid at room temperature

  • plant sources

    • soy, safflower, corn oils, nuts

  • may decrease risk for heart disease


Omega 3 omega 6 fatty acids types of polyunsaturated fats l.jpg

C

C

C

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

4

C

C

3

C

C

5

6

7…

C

C

C

C

1

2

C

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

C

Omega-3, Omega-6 fatty acidstypes of polyunsaturated fats

  • Essential fats need in diet

Ω

Ω

1

2

3

4

5

7…

6


Omega 6 fats l.jpg
Omega 6 fats

  • Linoleic acid omega-6

    • Margarine

    • Mayonnaise, salad dressing

    • Nuts (walnuts)

    • Oils (corn, safflower, soybean)

    • Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower)


Omega 3 fats l.jpg
Omega 3 fats

  • Linolenic acid omega-3

    • Fatty fish (salmon, tuna)

    • Flax seed

    • nuts

    • Linolenic acid can be converted to EPA and DHA


Epa and dha l.jpg
EPA and DHA

  • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and

  • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

    • lower blood pressure

    • prevent blood clot formation (large amounts may cause bleeding, bruising)

    • protect against irregular heartbeats

    • may reduce inflammation

    • essential for normal infant growth and development

    • may support immune system

    • may inhibit cancers


How much omega 3 l.jpg
How much Omega-3?

  • For health benefits balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

    • Americans get mostly omega-6 from

      • vegetable oils, salad dressings, and margarine and

    • Americans need more omega-3

      • Fish 2 times a week

      • Average U.S. intake of EPA and DHA is 150 mg/day

      • Recommended is 500 mg/day (about 2 fatty fish meals per week)


Hydrogenation l.jpg

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Acid

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

Hydrogenation

  • Adds Hydrogen

  • More saturated

C

Acid

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

H


Trans fatty acids l.jpg

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Acid

Acid

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Trans-fatty acids

Trans double bond

H

H

Cis double bond

H

H


Trans fatty acids16 l.jpg
Trans fatty acids

  • Affects blood cholesterol similar to saturated fat

  • Soft or solid at room temperature

  • Created when oils are hydrogenated

  • What foods have them? (Processed)

    • Baked goods (cookies, pie, cakes)

    • Fried foods (especially fast food)

    • Margarine

    • Processed snacks, crackers, chips, microwave popcorn


Looking at the label l.jpg
Looking at the label

  • One serving crackers

  • No trans fat

  • 30% daily limit saturated fat


Why hydrogenate l.jpg
Why Hydrogenate?

  • Reduce rancidity and increase shelf life

  • Change to more solid texture

    • spreads more easily

    • makes baked goods flaky and tender


Butter or margarine l.jpg
Butter or Margarine

  • Soft or liquid margarines

    • made from unhydrogenated oils

    • mostly unsaturated

  • Solid margarine

    • Hydrogenated oils

  • Butter

    • Saturated fat

  • Choose any sparingly



Saturation continuum l.jpg
Saturation continuum

Beef fat

Stick margarine

Tropical oils (exception to the rule)

Chicken fat (less solid)

Tub margarine

Squeeze margarine

Fish oils (exception to the rule)

Vegetable oils

More saturated

Less saturated


Cholesterol lipid transport lipoproteins l.jpg
Cholesterol/Lipid Transport Lipoproteins

  • Chylomicrons (mostly fat; neutral for risk CVD)

  • VLDL=very low density lipoprotein

  • LDL =low density lipoprotein

  • HDL=high density lipoprotein


Good and bad cholesterol l.jpg
Good and Bad Cholesterol

  • LDL

    • “lousy”

    • Higher LDL increase risk for heart disease

  • HDL

    • “Healthy”

    • Higher HDL protective against heart disease


Cholesterol effect diet l.jpg
Cholesterol effect Diet

Saturated fat and Trans fat

  • Increases LDL, decreases HDL

  • Polyunsaturated fat

    • Decreases LDL, decreases HDL

  • Monounsaturated fat

    • Decreases LDL, keeps HDL same

  • Cholesterol intake (very little impact)


  • Cholesterol effect other l.jpg
    Cholesterol effect other

    • Genetics

    • Health behaviors

      • Smoking

      • Exercise can help lower LDL and raise HDL


    Fats and healthy eating l.jpg
    Fats and Healthy Eating

    • 20-35% calories from fat

    • Limit saturated and trans-fat

      • Less solid fat

    • Choose oils not solids fat

      • Monounsaturated fat

      • omega-3 fats (good sources 2-3 times/weei)

    • Minimize cholesterol intake

      • Not a large effect on heart disease


    How many grams day l.jpg
    How many grams/day?

    • 20-35% of total kcals = fat kcals

      2000 kcals x .20 = 400 fat kcals

      2000 kcals x .35 = 700 fat kcals

    • Fat kcals / 9 = fat grams

      400 kcals / 9 = 44 g fat

      700 kcals / 9 = 78 g fat


    Fat replacers l.jpg
    Fat Replacers

    • Olestra – most common

      • Not digested

      • Sucrose polyester (fatty acid bonded to a sugar)

      • Mimics texture and quality of fat

    • Whip air or water into product to decrease fat

    • Use less fat

      • May add carbohydrate to get texture




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