Oh, I’m a good ‘old rebelNow that’s just what I am‘N for this Yankee nation,I do not give a damnI’m glad I fought agin’ herI only wish we’d wonI ain’t asked any pardonFor anything I’ve done. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAfHigPsC_s
I hates the Yankee nationAnd everything they doI hates the DeclarationOf Independence, tooI hates the glorious Union‘Tis dripping with our bloodI hates their strip’ed bannerI fit it all I could.
I rode with Robert E. LeeFor three years, thereaboutGot wounded in four placesAnd I starved at Point LookoutI catched the rheumatismA-campin’ in the snowBut I killed a chance of Yankees And I’d like to kill some more.
Three hundred thousand YankeesA-stiff in Southern dustWe got three hundred thousandBefore they conquered usThey died of Southern feverAnd Southern steel and shotI wish they were three millionInstead of what we got!
I can’t take up my musketAnd fight ‘em now no moreBut I ain’t gonna love ‘emNow that is certain sureAnd I don’t want no pardonFor what I was and amI won’t be reconstructedAnd I do not give a damn!..
Oh, I’m a good ‘old rebelNow that’s just what I am‘N for this Yankee nation,I do not give a damnI’m glad I fought agin’ herI only wish we’d wonI ain’t asked any pardonFor anything I’ve done.
The End of the War • Explain these events • Capture of Atlanta • Sherman’s March • Total war • Grant/Overland Campaign: Lee falling back continually • Sheridan: Shenandoah Valley • Fall of Richmond • Appomattox • Death of Lincoln • Capture of Jefferson Davis
Capture of Atlanta • To capture Atlanta would mean to cut off vital Confederate supply lines. • Sherman did not destroy his enemy in September 1864, but his defeat over Atlanta boosted Northern morale and allowed Lincoln’s re-election.
Sherman’s March • November 1864 • 62,000 men, 35,000 horses, over 2,000 wagons to Savannah • Cut off from his line of supply, but sustained his army on the land • "The utter destruction of [Georgia's] roads, houses and people," he had written, "will cripple their military resources... I can make Georgia howl!" • Little organized opposition, Sherman took Savannah on December 21, 1864; marched through Carolinas. • Total of 450 miles in fifty days. • Sherman’s men destroyed or confiscated agricultural produce, crops, and livestock, destroyed most railroad ties, factories, and warehouses. Also burned some public buildings, including the South Carolina state capitol building. • Destroying supplies and sabotaging the South’s transportation and manufacturing facilities deprived Southern armies of food and ammunition that that needed to keep fighting. • Sherman’s tactics and willingness to inflict hardship on the South’s civilian population also may have helped end the war • But, was all this necessary? Still debatable today.
Sherman’s March • From Sherman to Lincoln’s Chief of Staff: • We are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war, as well as their organized armies. I know that this recent movement of mine through Georgia has had a wonderful effect in this respect. Thousands who had been deceived by their lying newspapers to believe that we were being whipped all the time now realize the truth, and have no appetite for a repetition of the same experience. To be sure, Jeff. Davis has his people under pretty good discipline, but I think faith in him is much shaken in Georgia, and before we have done with her South Carolina will not be quite so tempestuous. • From a young Southern woman: • He told awful tales about the things Sherman's robbers had done; it made my blood boil to hear them, and when the captain asked him if some of the rascals didn't get caught themselves sometimes - stragglers and the like - he answered with a wink that said more than words: • "Yes; our folks took lots of prisoners; more'n'll ever be heard of agin." • "What became of them?" asked the lieutenant. • "Sent 'em to Macon, double quick," was the laconic reply. "Got 'emthar in less'n half an hour." • "How did they manage it?" continued the lieutenant, in a tone that showed he understood Sam's metaphor. • "Just took 'em out in the woods and lost 'em," he replied, in his jerky, laconic way. "Ever heerd o' losin' men, lady?" he added, turning to me, with an air of grim waggery that made my flesh creep - for after all, even Yankees are human beings, though they don't always behave like it.
From a Southern Widow: • Sleepless nights. The report is that the Yankees have left Covington for Macon to release prisoners held there. They robbed every house on the road of its provisions, sometimes taking every piece of meat, blankets and wearing apparel, silver and arms of every description. They would take silk dresses and put them under their saddles, and many other things for which they had no use. Is this the way to make us love them and their Union? Let the poor people answer whom they have deprived of every mouthful of meat and of their livestock to make any! Our mills, too, they have burned, destroying an immense amount of property. • Interesting view of Sherman’s March from a contemporary historian: http://www.lewrockwell.com/wilson/wilson24.html
Total War • Not notable in civilian deaths, but in destruction of homes, farms, and railroads. • Grant’s strategy: strike at entire Confederacy from multiple directions • "The art of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike him as hard as you can, and as often as you can, and keep moving on."
Grant/Overland Campaign • Began in spring 1864 • Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor • Exhausted Lee’s men • Siege of Petersburg (June 1864 – March 1865) made capture of Richmond inevitable • Bloodiest campaign in American history: 55,000 Union casualties (of which 7,600 were killed), 32,600 Confederate (4,200 killed) • Grant earns reputation as a “butcher” who recklessly threw his own men at the enemy, as well as relentlessly destroying the enemy’s men
Fall of Richmond: Spring 1865 • Richmond lived nearly 4 years with constant threat of capture • Lee eventually concluded he might still save the Confederacy, but Richmond might need to be sacrificed • “Serious calamity” • But time spent defended Richmond was no longer effective. “When Richmond falls I shall be able to make plans for myself." • Possible plan: retreat south to help defeat Sherman in the Carolinas • April 1: defeat of Petersburg = abandonment of Richmond
“I advise that all preparation be made for leaving Richmond tonight.” --General Lee's telegram to President Jefferson Davis • "The scene that followed baffles description. During the long afternoon and throughout the feverish night, on horseback, in every description of cart, carriage, and vehicle, in every hurried train that left the city, on canal barges, skiffs, and boats, the exodus of officials and prominent citizens was unintermitted." • Burning of government records • Destruction of city supply of whiskey • Also destruction of tobacco, cotton, and food supplies • In a city that thought there were severe shortages, the block by block burning of warehouses revealed speculators held most supplies thought to be non-existent. • "The most revolting revelation," wrote LaSalle Pickett, "was the amount of provisions, shoes and clothing which had been accumulated by the speculators who hovered like vultures over the scene of death and desolation. Taking advantage of their possession of money and lack of both patriotism and humanity, they had, by an early corner in the market and by successful blockade running, brought up all the available supplies with an eye to future gain, while our soldiers and women and children were absolutely in rags, barefoot and starving."
Surrender • Appomattox • Lee led his army in retreat to the West pursued by Grant. • Running battle: each army moved farther to the west in an effort to out flank, or prevent being out flanked by the enemy. • April 7, General Grant sent dispatches, leading to a meeting between the two commanders. • The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia. -- U.S. Grant, Lieutenant-General
Death of Lincoln • April 14, 1865 • Originally, Booth wanted to kidnap and ransom Lincoln in exchange for Southern prisoners • “Now he belongs to the Ages.” • Riots, vigilantes: Any one who expressed sympathy for the South or for Booth faced violence
Capture of Jefferson Davis • Until last day, hoped to preserve Confederacy. • Goal: Reinforce the armies and move the fighting to the western part of the Confederacy. • Fled Richmond with trusted advisors, government in exile. • Had to keep moving south; Virginia was heavily saturated with Union troops.
Most Americans believed the war was over with the surrender at Appomattox • Some believed Davis was part of conspiracy to assassinate Lincoln. • Davis finally disbanded government on May 3; rejoined wife on May 7 • Captured May 9; imprisoned 2 years • Imprisonment helped further Southern nationalism
Key Questions 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
President Lincoln’s Plan • 10% Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) • Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. • He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. • When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
President Lincoln’s Plan • 1864 “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR • “loyal assemblies” • They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). • Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH) CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • “Iron-Clad” Oath. • “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner] • “Conquered Provinces” Position[PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens] PocketVeto PresidentLincoln Wade-DavisBill
13th Amendment • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. • Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. • Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
40 Acres and a Mule • 1865: arable land to former slaves who became free as Union armies occupied areas of the Confederacy, especially in Sherman's March. • Sherman’s Special Field Orders, No. 15 provided for the land, and some of the recipients received from the Army mules for a family farm. • Sherman's orders specifically allocated certain land. • Andrew Johnson revoked Sherman's orders by vetoing the Freedman’s Bureau bill. • Another version of the Freedmen's bill, without the land grants, was later passed after Johnson's second veto was overridden. • However, Sherman’s Orders never intended to be official policy of the United States. Only issued to “create harmony” during the fall of 1864/spring 1865
President Andrew Johnson • Jacksonian Democrat. • Anti-Aristocrat. • White Supremacist. • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union. Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) • Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) • In new constitutions, they must accept minimumconditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. • Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. EFFECTS? 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. • Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES
Black Codes • Purpose: • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations. • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].
Congress Breaks with the President • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates. • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. • February, 1866 Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill. • March, 1866 Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. • Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1st in U. S. history
Johnson the Martyr / Samson If my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union. (February 1866)
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
14th Amendment • "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" • Ratified in July 1868. • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. • Insure against neo-Confederate political power. • Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens
15th Amendment • Prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen suffrage based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). • February 3, 1870. • Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. • For Southerners, this meant just one thing: it gave former slaves the RIGHT TO VOTE